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■  mjcntatg  fillajsBxrs 


W.  WELCH    M.  A. 


C.  G.  DUFFIELD    M.  A. 


Southern  Branch 
of  the 

University  of  California 

Los  Angeles 

Form  L  I 


dot  G 


This  book  is  DUE  on  the  last  date  stamped  below 

18  1985* 


Form  L-9-')"«-l' 

Co5/^99elss  Distric 

^^GfLfs  COUNTS  u^ 


(SUmcntarp  (Elasstcs. 


Adapted  for  the  Use  of  Beginners 



W.    WELCH,    M.A., 
Rev.    C.   G.   DUFFIELD,   M.A., 



MACMILLAN   AND   CO.,   Limited 


All  rights  reserved 

First  Edition  1SS3. 

Reprinted  January  and  April  1SS4,  1SS5,  1886. 

1888,  1SS9,  1891,  1892,  1894,  1896,  1898,  1899. 



)    Introduction, 

.\   Note  on  Eutropius, 
Chronological  Table,    - 
Directions  for  Translating, 
Rules  of  Agreement,    - 
-'  Directions  for  Parsing, 

<I  Eutropii  Historia  Romana, 

<sy  Exercises,    - 

— ^  Notes, 


^  Index, 

^N)  Maps — Rome, 
The  Roman  Empire, 










♦   71 





This  book  is  intended  for  pupils  in  quite  an  elemen- 
tary stage.  The  text  of  Eutropius  has  been  much 
abridged,  and  most,  if  not  all,  of  the  diflficult  passages 
and  unusual  constructions  have  been  either  omitted 
or  altered. 

While  quite  agreeing  in  the  use  of  dictionaries  for 
upper  forms,  the  Editors  are  of  opinion  that  for  small 
boys  it  causes  great  waste  of  time,  and  much  mental 
confusion,  without  any  corresponding  advantage.  As 
a  rule  boys  cannot  understand  how  a  word  can  be  used 
in  more  than  one  sense;  they  take  the  first  meaning 
given  in  the  dictionary,  and  if  it  is  not  the  meaning 
required  by  the  context,  so  much  the  worse  for  the 
sense.  WTien  boys  come  to  such  an  age  that  they 
are  able  to  realize  the  necessity  of  making  a  fit  choice, 
the  working  of  the  dictionary  is  no  doubt  a  valuable 
mental  exercise. 

Some  seek  to  meet  the  objection  to  the  use  of 
dictionaries  by  having  a  vocabulary  arranged  alpha- 


betically  with  selected  meanings;  but  for  beginners 
this  plan  has  several  drawbacks.  In  order  to  get  all 
the  benefit  possible  from  a  construing  lesson,  the 
meaning  of  the  Latin  words  should  be  known  both  in 
the  context  and  also  separately,  and  it  is  for  this 
reason  that  many  teachers  make  their  boys  write 
down  the  words  when  they  have  looked  them  out, 
and  so  form  their  o^vn  vocabulary.  But  young  boys 
do  not  copy  faithfully,  and  if  the  words  have  been 
learnt  off  from  these  home-made  vocabularies,  a  large 
crop  of  errors  will  have  been  stored  up.  The  winnow- 
ing process  is  not  an  easy  one. 

These  considerations  have  decided  the  Editors  to 
adopt  the  plan  of  arranging  the  vocabularies  in  the 
order  of  the  text.  The  boys  can  here  learn  the  voca- 
bulary to  a  lesson  after  the  construing  has  been  made 
clear  to  them,  and  thus  get  to  know  the  words  both 
in  the  context  and  independently  of  it.  If  the  master 
always  gives  part  of  the  hour  to  an  examination  in 
the  back  vocabularies,  the  knowledge  of  his  pupils 
will  increase  rapidly. 

Should  it  be  found  that  the  learning  of  so  many 
words  is  apt  to  produce  a  confused  rather  than  a 
clear  knowledge,  the  master  can  make  his  boys  mark 
the  important  words  only  to  be  learnt,  the  rest  being 
considered  in  the  context  alone.  In  this  way  some  of 
the  root  words  of  the  language  will  become  familiar, 
and  the  beginner's  memory  may  escape  the  danger  of 



the  conflisfon  which  comes  of  trying  to  remember  too 
many  words  at  once. 

As  a  rule  no  word  is  given  more  than  once  in  the 
vocabulary.  If  it  has  been  forgotten,  it  must  be  sought 
for  again,  by  means  of  the  index,  in  the  place  where 
it  first  occurred:  thus  the  principle  of  "connecting  the 
known  with  the  unknown  "  is  insisted  upon. 

Marks  of  quantity  have  been  placed  over  those 
syllables  only  where  it  is  possible  for  a  boy  to  make 
a  mistake  in  pronunciation. 

TVTiat  may  be  considered  by  some  to  be  a  more 
valuable  feature  of  the  book  are  the  exercises,  which 
consist  of  five  or  six  sentences  made  up  of  words 
occurring  in  the  chapter  with  which  the  exercise  runs 
parallel,  or  of  words  but  lately  used.  The  tendency 
always  is  to  make  the  sentences  too  hard.  Every 
teacher  of  any  experience  knows  the  value  of  closely 
connecting  the  translation  and  composition  lesson, 
and  is  also  painfully  aware  of  the  difiiculty  of  making 
up  the  required  sentences  during  the  lesson.  It  is 
hoped,  therefore,  that  this  saving  of  time  and  labour 
on  the  part  of  the  teacher  will  be  duly  appreciated. 
It  is  suggested  that  the  translation  of  any  chapter 
and  the  exercise  on  that  chapter  should  be  done  on 
the  same  day,  and,  if  possible,  during  the  same 

An  English-Latin  vocabulary  has  been  purposely 
omitted.     The  average  boy  will  prefer  to  look  out  a 


word  in  a  vocabulary  rather  than  exercise  his  thought; 
and  even  if  he  has  to  look  back  to  the  text  for  the 
word,  it  will  be  another  link  forged  between  the 
translation  and  composition. 

The  notes,  which,  as  a  rule,  boys  make  but  little 
use  of,  ^vill,  it  is  hoped,  be  found  to  contain  all  that 
is  necessary.  They  are  not  copious,  and  do  not  pro- 
fess to  take  the  place  of  the  master's  explanation. 


Very  little  is  known  of  Eutropius,  and  his  summary 
of  Roman  History  is  the  only  work  of  his  that  has 
been  preserved.  It  was  written  in  the  reign  of  the 
Emperor  Valens,  to  whom  it  is  dedicated,  sometime 
between  A.D.  364  and  378.  The  work,  which  con- 
sists of  ten  books,  commences  with  the  foundation  of 
Rome  by  Romulus  and  terminates  with  the  death  of 
the  Emjjeror  Jovian,  A.D.  364.  Eutropius  is  said  to 
have  been  secretary  to  the  Emperor  Constantino  the 
Great,  and  from  a  remark  which  he  drops  in  the 
tenth  book,  we  learn  that  he  served  under  the 
emperor  Julian  in  his  ill-fated  expedition  against  the 
Persians,  A.D.  363  (x.  xvi.  i.  Julianus...Parthis  intulit 
helium,  cui  expeditioni  ego  qiwqiie  interfui).  As  might 
be  expected  from  the  nature  of  his  undertaking, 
his  style  is  simple  and  terse,  and  his  language  well 
chosen;  as  a  historian  his  judgment  is  cool  and 


Kome  founded,    -            .            .            ^            .            .            .  753 

The  Seven  Kings  reigned,  -  -  -  .  753-509 

The  Romans  drove  out  their  kings,        -             .             .             .  509 

The  dictatorship  introduced,      -            ■            -            .            .  501 

"War  with  Veii,    -            -            •            -            .            .            .  483 

Decemvirs  appointed,     -            -            .            .            .            .  451 

Camillus  dictator,            ----..  405 

Capture  of  Rome  by  the  Gauls,              ....  390 

Battle  of  the  Caudine  Forks,      -            •            -            .            .  32I 

The  Samnites  defeated,  ---...  290 

War  with  Pyrrhus,          ----..  281 

The  Romans  masters  of  all  Italy,          -            -            .            .  275 

First  Punic  War,             ---...  263 

Second  Punic  War,         ---...  218 

Battle  of  Zama,  ---•-..  202 

Macedonian  War,            ----..  2OO 

War  with  Antiochus,      ----..  192 

The  Romans  conquerors  of  the  East,     -            -            .            .  190 

Third  Punic  War,            -.-.._  149 

Carthage  destroyed,         ......  146 

War  with  Jugurtha,        ......  in 

Cimbrian  War,     -            -            -            .            .            .            .  i05 

Civil  War  between  Marius  and  SuUa,   -            -            -            -  88 

Wars  with  Mithridates,  -  -  .  .  .  83-74 

Catiline's  Conspiracy,      -            •            -            .            .            -  63 
Caesar's  conquest  of  Gaul,          •            -            -            .            -56 

Civil  War  between  Caesar  and  Pompey,           -            -            -  49 

Pompey  defeated  at  Pharsalia,  -            -            -            -            -  48 

Death  of  Caesar,             -            -            -            -            .            -  44 

Triumvirate  of  Octavianus,  Antony,  and  Lepidus,      -            -  43 

Defeat  of  Brutus  and  Cassius  at  Philippi,         -            -            -  42 

Antony  defeated  by  Octavianus  at  Actium,      -            -            -  31 
Octavianus  proclaimed  Emperor  under  the  title  of  Augustus 

Caesar,           -            -                         ....  29 


1.  Pick  out  the  finite  verb  (the  predicate)  and  find  out  its 
voice,  mood,  tense,  number,  and  person. 

2.  Find  the  subject  or  subjects  with  which  it  agrees.  Trans- 

3.  If  the  verb  is  incomplete,  find  the  object  or  completion 

4.  See  if  the  subject  is  enlarged  by  any  of  the  methods 
mentioned  below ;  if  it  is,  translate,  taking  the  enlargements 
with  the  subject. 

5.  See  if  the  object  is  enlarged;  if  it  is,  translate,  taking 
the  enlargements  with  the  object. 

6.  Take  the  extensions  of  the  predicate.     Translate. 

7.  Translate  finally,  putting  in  the  introductory  conjimc- 
tions  or  other  words  not  yet  taken. 

The  subject  may  be 

1.  A  noun. 

2.  A  pronoun  (perhaps  understood  in  the  verb). 

3.  An  adjective. 

4.  An  infinitive  mood. 

5.  A  phrase. 

The  subject  may  be  enlarged  by 

1.  An  adjective  or  participle. 

2.  A  noun  in  apposition. 

3.  A  noun  in  the  genitive  case. 

4.  A  relative  clause. 

5.  A  participial  phrase. 

The  object  or  completion  may  consist  of  a  phrase,  or  of  any 
of  the  parts  of  speech  which  can  form  a  subject. 


The  object  may  be  enlarged  in  the  same  way  as  the  subject. 

The  predicate  may  be  extended  by 

1.  Adverb. 

2.  Ablative  case. 

3.  Preposition  and  its  case. 

4.  Adverbial  sentence. 

Rules  oi'  Agreement. 

1.  The  verb  agrees  with  its  subject  in  number  and  person 
(and  gender  in  the  compound  tenses). 

2.  The  adjective   agrees  with  its   substantive   in  gender, 
number,  and  case. 

3.  The  relative  agrees  with  its  antecedent  in  gender  and 
number ;  for  case  it  looks  to  its  own  verb. 


1.    Verb.   Person,   number,  tense,    mood,   and   voice,    from 
(give  the  parts).     Agrees  with ,  its  subject. 

2.  Noun.  Case,   number,  and  gender,  from  ,  of  the 

declension.     Give  the  reason  for  the  case. 

3.  Adjective.  Case,  number,  and  gender,  from and  is 

declined  like .     It  agrees  with  its  substantive . 

Give  the  comparative  and  superlative. 

4.  Relative.  Case,    number,    and   gender,   from  .     It 

agrees  with  its  antecedent ,     Give  the  reason  for  the 



THE    SEVEN    KINGS    OF   RO:\rE. 

1.  ROMANUM  imperium  a  Romulo  exordium  habet ; 
qui,  Yestalis  ^drginis  filius  et  Martis,   cum   Romulus. 
Remo  fratre  uno  partu  editus  est.     Is,  octo-    ^'^'  '^^^' 
decim  annos  natus,  urbem  exiguam  in  Palatino  monte 
constituit  post  Trojae  excidium  anno  trecentesimo  nou-    - 
agesirao  quarto.     2.  Condita  civitate,  quam  ex  nomine 
suo  Romam  vocavit,  haec  fere  egit :  multitudinem  fini- 
timorum  in  civitatem  recepit;  centum  ex  senioribus 
elegit,  quorum  consilio  omnia  ageret,  quos  Senatores 
nomina\^t  propter  senectutem.     Tunc,  quum  ipse  et  lo 
populus  uxores  non  habeiont,  invitavit  ad  spectacu- 
lum  ludorum  vicinas  urbi  nationes,  atque  earum  vir- 
gines  rapuit.     3.  Commotis  bellis  propter  raptarum 
injuriam,  Caeninenses  vicit,  Antemnates,  Crustuminos, 
Sabinos,    Fidenates,    Veientes :    haec    omnia    oppida  t  15 

§  A 


urbem  cingunt.  Et  quum,  orta  subito  tempestate. 
non  com2)aruisset,  anno  regui  tricesimo  septimo,  ad 
deos  transisse  creditus,  consecratus  est.  Deinde 
Romae  per  quinos  dies  senatores  imperaverunt ;  et, 
20  his  regnantibus,  annus  unus  completus  est. 

4.  Postea   Numa  Pompilius  rex  creatus  est,   qui 
Numa     bellum  nullum  quidem  gessit,  sed  non  minus 

Pompilius.     ...  T-.  1  ^    • 

B.C.  716.  civitati  quam  Komulus  proiuit ;  nam  et  leges 
Romanis  moresque  constituit,  qui  consuetudine  proeli- 
25  orum  jam  latrones  ac  semibarbari  putabantur ;  annum 
descripsit  in  decern  menses ;  et  infinita  Romae  sacra 
ac  templa  constituit.  Morbo  decessit  quadragesimo 
tertio  imperii  anno. 

5.  Huic  successit  Tullus  Hostilius.     Hie  Albanos 
30      Tullus     vicit,  qui  ab  urbe  Roma  duodecimo  milliario 


B.C.  674    absunt ;  Veientes  et  i^idenates,  quorum  alii 

sexto  milliario  absunt  ab  urbe  Romana,  alii  octavo 

decimo,    bello    superavit ;    urbem    ampliavit,   adjccto 

Caelio  monte.     Quum  triginta  duos  annos  regnasset, 

35  fulmine  ictus,  cum  domo  sua  arsit. 

6.  Post  hunc  Ancus  Marcius,  Numae  nepos,  suscepit 
Ancus     imperium.    Contra  Latinos  dimicavit;  Aven- 

Marcius.        .  ......  x       •       1 

B.C.  640.    tinum  montem  civitati  adjecit  et  Jamculum; 
Ostiam  condidit.    Vicesimo  quarto  anno  imperii  morbo 
40  periit. 

7.  Deinde  regnum  Priscus  Tarquinius  accepit.    Hie 
Tarquinius  numerum  senatorum  duplicavit;  circum  Romae 

Priscus.  T./^-ii-i-k  ...  ., 

B.C.  616.  aedincavit ;  ludos  Romanos  mstituit,  qui  ad 


nostram   memoriam    permanent.      Vicit  idem  etiam 
Sabinos;  primusque  triumphans  urbem  intravit.  Muros  45 
fecit   et   cloacas ;    capitolium   inchoa^dt.      Tricesimo 
octavo  imperii  anno  per  Anci  filios  occisus  est,  regis 
ejus  cui  ipse  successerat. 

8.  Post  hunc  Servius   Tullius  suscepit  imperium, 
genitus  ex  nobili  femina,  captiva  tamen  et     Servius     co 

°  ■'■  Tullius.        '^ 

ancilla.  Hie  quoque  Sabinos  subegit;  montes  b.c.578. 
tres,  Quirinalem,  Yiminalem,  Esquilinum,  urbi  ad- 
junxit;  fossas  circum  miirum  diixit.  Primus  omnium 
censum  ordinavit,  qui  adhuc  per  orbem  terrarum  in- 
cognitus  erat.  9.  Sub  eo  Roma,  omnibus  in  censum  55 
delatis,  habuit  octoginta  quattuor  millia  civium  Rom- 
anorum,  cum  his  qui  in  agris  erant,  Occisus  est 
quadragesimo  quinto  imperii  anno,  scelere  generi  sui 
Tarquinii  Superbi,  filii  ejus  regis  cui  ipse  successerat, 
et  filiae  suae,  quam  Tarquinius  habebat  uxorem.  60 

10.  Lucius   Tarquinius  Superbus,  septimus   atque 
ultimus  regum,  Volscos  superavit:  Gabios  et  Tarquinius 

,  ,  .      Supeibus. 

Suessam    Pometiam    subegit ;    cum   Tuscis    b.c.  534. 
pacem   fecit;    et   templum   Jovi   in   capitolio   aedifi- 
cavit.       Postea,    Ardeam    oppugnans,    in   octavo  de-65 
cimo  milliario  ab  urbe  positam,   imperium  perdidit. 
Nam    quum   filius    ejus,    Tarquinius   junior,    nobilis- 
simi    Collatini    uxorem    injuria  affecisset,    eaque   de 
injuria  marito,  et  patri,  et  amicis  questa  fuisset,  in 
omnium    conspectu   se   occidit.      11.    Propter    quam  70 
causam   Brutus,  parens,  et  ipse  Collatinus  populum 


concita-sdt,  et  Tarquinio  ademit  imperium.  Mox 
exercitus  quoque  qui  Ardeam  cum  ipso  rege 
oppugnabat  eum  reliquit ;  veniensque  ad  urbem 
7  5  rex,  portis  clausis,  exclusus  est.  Quumque  impera- 
visset  annos  viginti  quinque,  cum  uxore  et  liberis 
suis  fugit. 

THE   REPUBLIC.       B.C.    509. 

12.  Hinc  consules  coepere,  pro  uno  rege,  duo  h^c 
causa  creari;    ut,   si  unus  malus   esse   voluisset,   ab 

Soaltero  coerceretur.  Et  placuit  ne  imperium  longius 
quam  annum  haberent;  ne  per  diuturnitatem  potestatis 
insolentiores  redderentur.  Fuerunt  igitur  anno  primo, 
expulsis  regibus,  consules  Lucius  Junius  Brutus  et 
Tarquinius    Collatinus,  maritus   Lucre tiae.     13.  Sed 

85  Tarquinio  Collatino  statim  sublata  dignitas  est ; 
placuerat  enim  ne  quisquam  in  arbe  maneret  qui 
Tarquinius  vocaretur.  Ergo  ex  urbe  migravit ;  cujus 
in  locum  factus  est  Valerius  Publicola  consul.  Com- 
mo\dt  tamen  bellum  urbi  Romanae  rex  Tarquinius,  qui 

90  fuerat  expulsus,  et,  collectis  undique  multis  gentibus, 
ut  in  regnum  posset  restitui  dimicavit.  14.  In  prima 
pugna  Brutus  et  Aruns,  Tarquinii  filius,  invicem  se 
occiderunt.  Bomani  tamen  ex  ea  pugna  victores 
recesserunt.    Brutum  Romanae  matronae,  defensorem 

95  pudicitiae  suae,  quasi  communem  patrem,  per  annum 
luxerunt.     Nono  anno  post  reges  exactos,  quum  gener 


Tarquinii,  ad  injuriam  soceri  vindicandam,  ingentem 
collegisset  exercitum,  nova  Romae  dignitas  Dictatorship 

-r^.  n  -n     1  introduced. 

est  creata,  quae  Dictatura  appellatur.  Lodem    b.c.  501. 
anno  etiam  Magister  equitum  factus  est,  qui  dictator!  100 


15.  Octavo   decimo   anno   postquam   reges   ejecti 
ei  ant,  expulsus  ex  urbe  Quintius  Marcius,  rj^^  voiscians 
dux   Romanorum    qui    Coriolos   ceperat,  ^^  ^°"^^"^- 
Volscorum  civitatem,  ad  ipsos  Yolscos  contendit  iratus; 

et  auxilia  contra  Eomanos  accepit.  Quum  Romanos  105 
saepe  vicisset,  usque  ad  urbem  accessit ;  et  oppugna- 
visset  etia-m  patriam  suam,  legatis  qui  pacem  petebant 
repudiatis,  nisi  ad  eum  mater  Yeturia  et  uxor  Yolumnia 
ex  urbe  venissent,  quarum  fletu  et  deprecatione  supe- 
ratus,  removit  exercitum.  no 

16.  Kaesone  Fabio  et  Tito  Yirginio  consulibus,  tre- 
centi   nobiles  homines,  qui  ex  Fabia  gente   Warvdth 
erant,  contra  Veientes  bellum  soli  suscepe-    b.c.  483. 
runt.     Itaque  profecti  omnes  nobiles  in  proelio  con- 
ciderunt.     Unus  omnino   superfuit  ex  tanta  faniilia,  115 
qui  propter  aetatem  puerilem  duci  non  potuerat  ad 
pugnam.     17-   Sequenti  anno  quum  in  Algido  monte 
Romanus   obsideretur  exercitus,  L.  Quintius   Cincin- 
natus  dictator  est  factus,  qui,  agrum  quattuor  jugerum 
possidens,  manibus  suis  colebat.     Is  quum  in  agris  120 
arans  esset  inventus,  sudore  deterso,  togam  praetextam 


accepit,  et,  caesis  hostibus,  liberavit  exercitum.   Postea 
Decemvirs  imperium  consulare  cessavit,  et  pro  duobus 

appointed  ti  i  r»        • 

B.C.  451.    consulibus  decem  facti  sunt,   qui  summam 
[25  potestatem  haberent,  Decemviri  nominati. 

18.  Post   viginti   deinde   annos   Veientes   rebella- 
camiiiug   veruut.      Dictator  contra  ipsos  missus  est 

Dictator.     -^      •         ^        .11  •         • 

B.C.  405  Furius  Camillus,  qui  primum  eos  vicit  acie  ; 
mox  etiam  civitatem  diu  obsidens  cepit,  antiquissimam 
i3oItaliae  atque  ditissimam.  4.  Post  earn  cepit  et  Faliscos, 
non  minus  nobilem  civitatem;  sed  commota  est  ei 
in'V'idia,  quod  praedam  male  divisisset,  damnatusque 
ob  earn  causam  et  expulsus  civitate  est. 

19.  Statim  Galli  Senones  ad  urbem  venerunt;  et 
135    Rome  taken  Romauos  apud  flumen  Alliam  victos  secuti, 

^^    bv  the  Gauls.  ^ 

B.C.  390.  etiam  urbem  occupaverunt ;  neque  defend! 
quidquam  nisi  capitolium  potuit.  Quod  quum  diu 
obsedissent,  et  jam  Romani  fame  laborarent,  a  Camillo, 
qui  in  vicina  civitate   exsulabat,   victi  suntdJ  postea 

i4otamen,  accepto  etiam  auro  ne  capitolium  obsiderent, 
recesserunt ;  quos  secutus  Camillus  ita  cecidit,  ut  et 
aurum,  quod  his  datum  fuerat,  et  omnia  militaria  signa 
revocaret.  20.  Titus  Quintius  dictator  adversus 
Gallos,  qui  in  Italiam  venerant,  missus  est.     Hi  trans 

145  Anienem  fluvium  consederant.  Nobilissimus  de  sena- 
toribus,  Titus  ManKus,  Galium  ad  singulare  certamen 
provocantem  occidit ;  torquem  aureum  sustulit,  et  in 
collo  suo  imposuit ;  qua  de  re  in  perpetuum  sibi 
et  posteris  cognomen  Torquati  accepit,     Galli  fugati 


sunt.       Mox    per    C.    Sulpicium    dictatorem    etiam  150 
victi     sunt.       21.    Mox    quum    legiones    profectae 
essent  ad  versus   G  alios,   duce   Lucio  Furio  Camillo, 
quidam    ex    Gallis    unum     e     Eomanis,    qui     esset 
optimus,    provocavit.       Turn    se    Marcus    Valerius, 
tribunus    militum,    obtulit;    et    quum     processisset  155 
armatus,  corvus  ei  in  galea  consedit.     Mox,  commissa 
adversus  Galium  pugna,  idem  comis  alis  et  unguibus 
Galli    ocTilos  verberavit :   ita   ut,   a   tribuno    Valerio 
interfectus,  non  solum  victoriam  ei,  sed  etiam  nomcn, 
dederit ;    nam  postea   idem  Corvinus  est  dictus,   ac  1 60 
propter  hoc  meritum  annorum  trium  et  viginti  consul 
est  factus. 

22.  Jam  Eomani  potentes  esse  coeperunt.     Bellum 
enim  apud  Samnitas  gerebatur,  qui  medii  sunt  samnite 
inter  Picenum,   Campaniam  et  Apuliam.     L.    ^^^-     165 
Papirius  Cursor  cum  honore  dictatoris  ad  id  bellum 
profectus  est.     Qui  quum  Eomam  rediisset,  Q.  Fabio 
Jdaximo,    magistro    equitum,   quern   apud    exercitum 
reliquit,   praecepit,    ne   se    absente   pugnaret.      lUe, 
occasione  reperta,  felicissime  dimicavit,  et  Samnitas  170 
dele\dt.     Ob  quam  rem  a  dictatore  capitis  damnatus, 
quod  se  vetante  pugnasset,  ingenti  favore  militum  et 
populi  liberatus  est.     23.  Postea  Samnites  Romanos, 
apud  Furculas  Caudinas  anoiistiis  locorum   Battle  of  the 

,  Caudine  Forks. 

conclusos,  ingenti  dedecore  vicerunt  et  sub      b.c.  321.       175 
jugum  miserunt.    Pax  tamen  a  senatu  et  populo  soluta 
est,  quae  cum  ii)sis  propter  necessitatera  facta  fuerat. 


Postea   Samnites   victi   sunt   a   L.   Papirio   consule 
septem  millia  eorum  sub  jugum  miss  a.     Papirius  de 
1 80  Samnitibus  triumphavit.    Eo  tempore  Appius  Claudius 
censor  Aquam    Claudiam  induxit,   et  viam  Appiam 

WAR  WITH   PYRRHUS,    KING   OF   EPIRUS.      B.C.    281. 

24.  Inter jectis  aliquot  annis,  Tarentinis,  qui  jam 
in  ultima  Italia  sunt,  bellum  indictum  est.     His  ut 

185  auxilium  feiret,  Pyrrhus,  Epiri  rex,  in  Italiam  venit. 
Tum  primum  Eomani  cum  transmarino  hoste  dimi- 
caverunt.  Missus  est  contra  eum  consul  Publius 
Valerius  Laevinus,  qui,  quum  exploratores  Pyrrhi 
cepisset,  jussit  eos  per  castra  duci,  ostendique  omnem 

190  exercitum,  tumque  dimitti,  ut  renuntiarent  Pyrrlio 
quaecunque  a  Eomanis  agerentur.  25.  Commissa 
mox  pugna,  quum  jam  Pyrrhus  fugeret,  elephantorum 
auxilio  vicit,  quos  incognitos  Romani  expaverunt;  sed 
nox  proelio  finem  dedit.     Laevinus  tamen  per  noctem 

1 95  fugit.  Pyrrhus  Romanos  mille  octingentos  cepit,  eosque 
summo  honore  tractavit:  occisos  sepelivit;  quos  quum 
adverso  vulnere  et  truci  viiHu  mortuos  jacere  vidisset, 
tulisse  ad  coelum  manus  dicitur  cum  hac  voce,  se 
totius  orbis  dominum  esse  potuisse,  si  tales  sibi  milites 

200  contigissent.  26.  Postea  Pyrrhus,  junctis  sibi  Samni- 
tibus, Lucanis,  Briittiis,  Romam  perrexit ;  omnia 
ferro  ignique  vastavit ;  Campanium  depopulatus  est  ; 


atque  Praenesten  venit  milliario  ab  iirhe  octavo 
decimo.  Mox  terrore  exercitus,  qui  cum  consulc 
sequebatur,  in  Campaniam  se  recepit.  Legati  ad  205 
Pyrrhum  de  redimendis  captivis  missi,  ab  eo  honorifice 
suscepti  sunt ;  captivos  sine  pretio  Eomam  misit.  27. 
Unura  ex  legatis  Eomanorum,  Fabricium,  sic  admiratus 
est,  ut,  quum  eum  pauperem  esse  cognovisset,  quarta 
parte  regni  promiss^  sollicitare  voluerit,  ut  ad  se  2 1  o 
transiret ;  contemptusque  a  Fabricio  est.  Quare  quum 
Pyrrlius  ingenti  Itomanonim  admiratione  teneretur, 
legatum  praecipuum  virum,  Cineam  nomine,  misit,  qui 
pacem  acquis  conditionibus  peteret,  ita  ut  Pyrrhus 
partem  Italiae,  quam  jam  armis  occupaverat,  obtineret.  215 

28.  Inter jecto  anno,  contra  Pyrrhum  Fabricius  est 
missus,  qui  prius  inter  legatos  sollicitari  non  rj^g  integrity 
potuerat,  quarta  parte  regni  promissa.  Tum,  °^  Fabncius. 
quum  vicina  castra  ipse  et  rex  haberet,  medicus 
Pyrrhi  ad  eum  nocte  venit,  promittens  veneno  Pyrrhum  220 
se  occisurum,  si  sibi  aliquid  poUiceretur ;  quem  Fabri- 
cius vinctum  reduci  jussit  ad  dominum,  Pyrrhoque 
dici  quae  medicus  spopondisset.  Tum  rex,  admirans 
eum,  dixisse  fertur,  "  Ille  est  Fabricius  qui  difficiHus 

ab  honestate  quam  sol   a  cursu  suo  averti  potest."  225 

29.  Tum  rex  in  Siciliam  profectus  est.  Fabricius, 
\dctis  Samnitibus  et  Lucanis,  triumphavit.  Consules 
deinde  Manius  Curius  Dentatus  et  Cornehus  Lentulus 
adversus  Pyrrhum  missi  sunt.  Curius  exercitum  ejus 
superavit;  ipsum  Tarentum  fugavit ;  castra  cepit.    E0230 


die  caesa  sunt  hostium  ^^ginti  tria  rnillia.  Curius 
Dentatus  in  consulatu  triumphant.  Primus  Romam 
elephantos  quattuor  duxit.  Pyrrhus  etiam  Tarento 
mox  recessit,  et  apud  Argos  occisus  est. 

FIRST  PUNIC  WAR.      B.C.    263-241. 

235  30.  Quinto  anno  belli  Punici,  quod  contra  Afros 
gerebatur,  primum  Romani,  Caio  Duilio  et  Cneio 
Cornelio  Asino  consulibus,  in  mari  dimicaverunt, 
paratis  navibus  rostratis,  quas  Liburnas  vocant. 
Consul  Cornelius  fraude  deceptus  est.     Duilius,  com- 

2  4oniisso  praelio,  Carthaginiensium  ducem  vicit;  triginta 
et  unam  naves  cepit,  quattuordecim  mersit ;  octo 
millia  hostium  cepit,  tria  millia  occidit :  neque  uUa 
victoria  Romanis  gratior  fuit,  quod,  invicti  terra,  jam 
etiam  mari  plurimum  possent. 

245      31.  Lucio  Manlio  Volsone,   Marco  Atilio  Regulo 

Regius,  consulibus,  bellum  in  Africam  translatum  est 

B.C.  255.  contra  Hamilcarem,  Carthaginiensium  ducem. 

In  mari  est  pugnatum,  victusque  est ;  nam  perditis 

sexaginta  quattuor  navibus,  retro  se  recepit :  Romani 

250  viginti  duas  amiserunt :  sed  quurn  in  Africam  trans- 
issent,  consules  usque  ad  Carthaginera  processerunt ; 
multisque  vastatis,  Manlius  victor  Romam  rediit,  et 
viginti  septem  millia  captivorum  reduxit.  Atilius 
Regulus  in  Africa  remansit,  et  saepius  victor,  septua- 

2.1^.5;  ginta  quattuor  civitates  in  fidem  accepit. 


32.  Turn  victi  Carthaginienses  pacem  a  Romanis 
petierunt,  quam  quum  Regulus  nollet  nisi  durissimis 
conditionibus  dare,  Afri  auxilium  a  Lacedaemoniis 
petierunt,  et,  duce  Xanthippe,  qui  a  Lacedaemoniis 
missus  fuerat,  Regulus  ita  victus  est,  ut  duo  millia2  6o 
tantum  ex  omni  Romano  exercitu  superessent ;  quin- 
genti  capti  sunt,  triginta  millia  occisa ;  Regulus  ipse 
in  catenas  conjectus.  33.  Postea  Metellus  in  Sicilia 
Afrorum  ducem,  cum  centum  triginta  elephantis  et 
magnis  copiis  venientem,  superavit;  viginti  millia  265 
liostium  cecidit ;  viginti  sex  elephantos  cepit,  reliquos 
errantes  per  Numidas,  quos  in  auxilium  habebat, 
collegit  et  Romam  deduxit  ingenti  pompa.  34.  Post 
haec  mala  Carthaginienses  Regulum  ducem,  quem 
ceperant,  petierunt,  ut  Romam  proficisceretui',  et  270 
pacem  a  Romanis  obtineret,  ac  permutationem  capti- 
vorum  faceret.  Ille  Romam  quum  venisset,  inductus 
in  senatum,  nihil  quasi  Rom  anus  egit,  dixitque,  se  ex 
ilia  die,  qua  in  potestatem  Afrorum  venisset,  Romanum 
esse  desiisse.  35.  Itaque  et  uxorem  a  complexu2  75 
removit,  et  senatui  suasit,  ne  pax  cum  Poenis  fieret. 
Itaque  obtinuit.  Nam  Afros,  pacem  petentes,  nohiit 
admittere;  ipse  Carthaginem  rediit,  utferentibusque 
Romanis,  ut  eum  Romae  tenerent,  negavit,  se  in  ea 
urbe  mansurum,  in  qua,  postquam  Afris  servierat,  280 
dignitatem  honesti  civis  habere  non  posset.  Regressus 
igitur  ad  Africam  omnibus  suppHciis  exstinctus  est. 
\J36.  Caio  Lutatio  Catulo,  Aulo  Postumio  Albino  con- 


sulibus,  anno  belli  Punici  ^dcesimo  tertio,  Catulb  bellum 

285  contra  Afros  commissum  est.     Profectus  est  cum  tre- 

centis  navibus  in  Siciliam.    Afri  contra  ipsum  quadrin- 

gentas  paraverunt.      Lutatius  Catulus  navem  aeger 

ascendit,  vulneratus  enim  in  pugna  superiore  fuerat. 

Contra  Lilybaeum  pugnatumest  ingenti  \drtute  Roman- 

2  9oorum;  nam  septuaginta  tres  Carthaginiensium  naves 

captae  sunt,  centum  viginti  quinque  demersae ;  triginta 

duo  millia  hostium  capta,  tredecim  occisa ;  infinitum 

auri  argentique  pondus  in  potestatem  Romanorum  re- 

dactum.  Ex  classe  Romana  duodecim  naves  demersae. 

295  Statim  Carthaginienses  pacem  petierunt,  tributaque 

iis  pax. 


37.  Bellum  Punicum  secundum  Romanis  illatum 
The  Carthaginians  est  per  Hauuibalem,  Carthasriniensium 

under  Hannibal.  -^  .  . 

B.C.  218-202.  ducem,  qui  Saguntum,  Hispaniae  urbem 
300  Romanis  amicam,  oppugnare  aggressus  est.  Huic 
Romani  per  legatos  denuntiaverunt,  ut  bello  abstineret : 
is  legatos  admittere  noluit.  Romani  etiam  Cartba- 
ginem  miserunt,  ut  mandaretur  Hannibali  ne  bellum 
contra  socios  populi  Romani  gereret.  Saguntini  interea, 
305  fame  victi  cap ti que  ab  Hannibale,  gravissimis  poenis 
afficiuntur.  38.  Tum  Publius  Cornelius  Scipio  cum 
exercitu  in  Hispaniam  profectus  est ;  Tiberius  Sem- 
pronius  in  Siciliam.  Bellum  Carthaginiensibus  in- 
dictum    est.       Hannibal,    relicto   in    Hispania   fratre 


Hasdrubale,  Pyrenaeum  transiit;  Alpes,  arlhuc  in  ea3io 
parte  invias,  sibi  patefecit.  Traditur  ad  Italiam  octo- 
ginta  millia  peditum,  et  viginti  millia  equitum,  septem 
et  triginta  elephantos  adduxisse.  Sempronius  Grac- 
chus, cognito  in  Italiam  Hannibalis  adventu,  e  Sicilia 
exercitum  Ariminum  trajecit.  39.  Publius  Cornelius  315 
Scipio  Hannibali  primus  occurrit :  commisso  praelio, 
fugatis  suis,  ipse  vulneratus  in  castra  rediit.  Sem- 
pronius   Gracchus,   quum    apud    Trebiam  Battle  of  the 

n-     •  '       •  X     n  1    m  Trebia. 

amnem  connixisset,  \incitur.  Inde  ad  Tus-  b.c.  218. 
ciam  veniens,  Hannibal  Flaminio  consuli  occurrit:  320 
ipsum  Flaminium  interemit;  Eomanorum  viginti  quin- 
que  millia  caesa  sunt;  ceteri  diffugerunt.  Missus 
adversus  Hannibalem  postea  a  Romanis  Q.  Fabius 
iNlaximus.  Is  eum,  differendo  pugnam,  ab  impetu 
fregit,  et  mox,  inventa  occasione,  vicit.  325 

40.   Quingentesimo  et  quadragesimo  anno  a  condita 
urbe  L.  Aemilius  Paullus,  P.  Terentius  Varro  contra 
Hannibalem     mittuntur,     Fabioque    succedunt,    qui 
ambos  consules  monuit,  ut  Hannibalem,  calidum  et 
impatientem  ducem,  non  alitor  \dncerent,  quam  proe-  330 
Hum  differendo.     Verum  quum  impatientia  Yarronis 
cousulis   apud  vicum  qui  Cannae   appellatur,  Battle  of 
in   Appulia   pugnatum   esset,   ambo  consules  b.c.  216. 
vincuntur.      41.  In   ea   pugna   tria   millia   Afrorum 
pereunt ;  magna  pars  de  exercitu  Hannibalis  sauciatur.  335 
Nullo  tamen  proelio  Romani  graviora  damna  accepe- 
runt :  periit  enim  in  eo  ^milius  Paulus  consul ;  con- 


sulares  et  praetorii  viginti,  senatores  capti  aut  occisi 
triginta,  nobiles  viri  treceuti,  equitum  tria  millia  et 

340  quingenti :  ita  ut  tres  modios  aureorum  annulorum 
Carthaginem  mitteret,  quos  e  manibus  equitum  Eo- 
manorum,  senatorum,  militum  detraxerat.  Interea 
in  Hispania,  ubi  frater  Hannibalis  Hasdrubal  reman- 
serat  cum  magno  exercitu,  ut  eam  totam  Afris  subi- 

345  geret,  a  duobus  Scipionibus,  Eomanis  ducibus,  vincitur, 

perditque  in  pugna  triginta  quinque  millia  hominum. 

42.  Decimo  anno  postquam  Poeni  in  Ttaliam  vene- 

rant,   Hannibal   usque  ad   quartum   milliarium  urbis 

accessit;  equites  ejus  usque  ad  portam.    Mox  consulum 

350  metu,  cum  exercitu  venientum,  Hannibal  ad  Cam- 
paniam  se  recepit.  In  Hispania  a  fratre  ejus  Hasdru- 
bale  ambo  Scipiones,  qui  per  multos  annos  victores 
fuerant,  interficiuntur ;  exercitus  tamen  integer  man- 
sit  ;  casu  enim  magis  erant,  quam  virtute,  decepti. 

355      43.  Tandem  ad  Hispanias  Publius  Cornelius  Scipio 

Scipio  in  Hiittitur,    filius    PubHi    Scipionis    qui   ibidem 

Spam,    ijgii^jjj  gesserat,  annos  natus  quattuor  et  viginti, 

vir  Eomanorum  omnium  et  sua  aetate  et  posteriori 

tempore  fere  primus.     Is  Carthaginem  Novam  capit, 

360  in  qua  omne  aurum  et  argentum  et  belli  apparatum 
Afri  habebant.  Anno  decimo  quarto  postquam  in 
Italiam  Hannibal  venerat  Scipio,  consul  factus,  in 
Africam  mittitur;  cui  viro  divinum  quiddam  inesse 
existimabatur.  adeo  ut  putaretur  etiam  cum  numinibus 

365  habere  sermonem.  44.  Is  Syphacem,  Numidiae  regem, 

N    O    R   I   C   U   M 



qui  se  Afris  conjunxerat,  capit.     Syphax,  cum  nobi- 
lissimis  Numidis  et  infinitis  spoliis,  a  Scipione  Eomam 
mittitur  ;  qu§,  re  audita,  omnis  fere  Italia  Hannibalem 
deserit :  ipse  a  Carthaginiensibus  in  Africam  redire  ju- 
betur,  quam  Scipio  vastabat.    Ita  anno  septimo  decimo  370 
ab  Hannibale  Italia  liberata  est,  quam  flens  dicitur 
reliquisse.     Infertur  a  Scipione  et  Masinissa,  alio  rege 
Numidarum,  qui  amicitiam  cum  Scipione  fecerat,  Car- 
thagini  bellum.     45.  Hannibal  tres  exploratores  ad 
Scipionis  castra  misit,  quos  captos  Scipio  circumduci  375 
per  castra  jussit,  ostendique  totum  exercitum,  mox 
etiam  prandium  dari,  eosque  dimitti,  ut  renuntiarent 
Hannibali  quae  apud  Eomanos  vidissent.  g^ttie  of  zama. 
Interea  proelium  ab  utroque  duce  instruc-      ^•^-  ^^^ 
turn  est,   quale  vix  ulla  memoria  fuit,  quum  periti-380 
simi  viri  copias  suas  ad  bellum  educerent.      Scipio 
victor  recedit,  paene  ipso  Hannibale  capto,  qui  primum 
cum  multis  equitibus,  deinde  cum  viginti,  postremo 
cum  quattuor,   evasit.     Post  id  certamen   pax   cum 
Carthaginiensibus  facta  est.     Scipio  Eomam  rediit,  et  385 
ingenti   gloria   triumpha\at,  atque  Africanus    ex    eo 
appellari  coeptus  est. 


46.  Transact©  Punico  bello,  secutum  est  Macedo- 
nicum  contra  Philippum  regem.  Quin-  Macedonian  War 
gentesimo    et    quinquagesimo     primo       ^^  ^^-        -qq 


anno  ab  urbe  condita  T.  Quinctius  Flamininus 
adversus  Philippum  rem  prospere  gessit ;  pax  ei  data 
est.  Transacto  bello  Macedonico  secutum  est  Syriacum 
War  with  Antiochus.  contra  Antiochum  regem,  P.  Coraelio 

395  ^'^'  ^^^'  Scipione,   M'.  Acilio  Glabrione  con- 

sulibus.  Huic  Antiocho  Hannibal  se  junxerat,  Car- 
thaginem,  patriam  suam,  metu,  ne  Eomanis  traderetur, 
relinquens.  M'.  Acilius  Glabrio  in  Achaia  bene 
pugnavit.      Castra   regis   Antiochi   noctuma    piigna 

400  capta  sunt,  et  ipse  fugatus  est. 

47.  Turn  Scipio  Africanus  fratri  suo  L.  Comelio 
Scipioni  consuli  legatus  contra  Antiochum  profectus 
est.  Hannibal,  qui  cum  Antiocho  erat,  navali  proelio 
victus  est.     Ipse  postea  Antiochus  circa  Sipylum  ad 

405  Magnesiam,  Asiae  civitatem,  a  consule  Cornelio 
Scipione  ingenti  proelio  fusus  est.  Quinquaginta 
millia  peditum,  tria  equitum  eo  certamine  ex  parte 
regis  occisa  sunt.  Tum  rex  Antiochus  pg^ce  is  made. 
pacem    petiit,    quae   data   est   a   senatu.      ^•^-  ^^^• 

410  Hannibal,  qui  victo  Antiocho,  ne  Eomanis  traderetur, 
ad  Prusiam,  Bithyniae  regem,  fugerat,  repetitus  etiam 
ab  eo  est  per  T.  Quinctium  Flamininum.  Et  quum 
tradendus  Eomanis  esset,  venenum  bibit  et  apud 
Libyssam  in  finibus  Nicomediensium  sepultus  est. 

415      48.  Tertium  deinde  bellum  contra  Carthaginem  sus- 

Third  Punic  cipitur,  anuo  quiuquagesimo  primo  postquam 

B.C.  149.     secundum  Punicum  bellum  transactum  erat. 

Hi  profecti  Carthaginem  oppugnaverunt.     Contra  eos 


Hasdnibal,  dux  Carthaginiensium,  dimicabat.  Pha- 
mea,  dux  alius,  equitatui  praeerat  Carthaginiensium.  420 
Scipio  tunc,  Scipionis  Africani  nepos,  tribunus  ibi 
militabat.  Hujus  apud  omnes  ingens  metus  et 
reverentia  erat.  Nam  et  paratissimus  ad  dimicandum 
et  consultissimus  habebatur.  Itaque  per  eum  multa 
prospere  a  consulibus  gesta  sunt,  nee  quidquam  magis42  5 
vel  Hasdrubal  vel  Phamea  vitabant,  quam  contra  earn 
Romanorum  partem  committere,  ubi  Scipio  dimicabat. 

49.  Quum    igitur  clarum  Scipionis  nomen  esset, 
juvenis  adhuc  consul  est  factus  et  contra  Carthaginem 
missus.     Is  eam  cepit  ac  diruit.     Spolia  ibi  inventa,  430 
quae  variarum  civitatum  excidiis  Carthago  collegerat, 

et  ornamenta  urbium,  quae  sua  recognoscebant, 
civitatibus  Siciliae,  Italiae,  Africae  reddidit.  Ita  Car- 
thago septingentesimo  anno,  postquam  con-  Destruction  of 
dita  erat,  deleta  est.  Scipio  nomen,  quod  b.c.  146.'  435 
avus  ejus  acceperat,  meruit,  scilicet  ut  propter  virtutem 
etiam  ipse  Africanus  junior  vocaretur. 

50.  Q.  Pompeius  deinde  consul  a  Numantinis, 
quae  Hispaniae  civitas  fuit  opulentissima,  superatus, 
pacem  ignobilem  fecit.  Post  eum  C.  Hostilius  Man-  440 
cinus  consul  iterum  cum  Numantinis  pacem  fecit 
infamem,  quam  populus  et  senatus  jussit  infringi,  atque 
ipsum  ^lancinum  hostibus  tradi,  ut  in  illo,  quem 
auctorem  foederis  habebant,  injuriam  soluti  foederis 
vindicarent.  Post  tantam  igitur  ignominiam,  qua  a  445 
Numantinis  bis  Eomani  exercitus  fuerant  subjugati, 


P.    Scipio   Africanus   secundo   consul   factus    et    ad 

Numantiam   missus    est.      51.     Is   primum   militem 

vitiosum  et  igiia\Tim,  exercendo  magis  quam  puniendo, 

4^0  Destruction  of  sine  aliqua  acerbitate  correxit;  turn  multas 

^  Numantia.     ^^.  .  .    .  -in 

B.C.  133.  Hispamae  civitates  partim  bello  cepit,  par- 
tim  in  deditionem  accepit ;  postremo  ipsam  Numan- 
tiam, diu  obsessam,  fame  confecit  et  a  solo  evertit, 
et  reliquam  provinciam  in  fidem  accepit.     Eo  tempore 

455  Attains  rex  Asiae,  frater  Eumenis,  mortuus  est, 
heredemque  populum  Romanum  reliquit.  Ita  imperio 
Romano  per  testamentum  Asia  accessit. 

52.  P.  Scipione  Nasica  et  L.  Calpurnio  Bestia  con- 
warwith   sulibus,  Jugurthae,  Numidarum  regi,  bellum 

460  B.C.  111."  illatum  est,  quod  Adherbalem  et  Hiempsalem, 
Micipsae  filios,  fratres  suos,  reges  et  populi  Romani 
amicos,  interemisset.  Missus  adversus  eum  consul 
Calpurnius  Bestia,  corruptus  regis  pecunia,  pacem  cum 
eo  flagitiosissimam  fecit,  quae  a  senatu  improbata  est. 

465  Postea  contra  eundem,  insequenti  anno,  Spurius  Post- 
umius  Albinus  profectus  est.  Is  quocjue  per  fratrem 
ignominiose  contra  Numidas  pugnavit.  53.  Tertio 
missus  Q.  Caecilius  Metellus  consul  exercitum  ingenti 
severitate  et  moderatione  correctum,  quum  niliil  in 

470  quenquam  cruentum  faceret,  ad  disciplinam  Romanam 
reduxit.  Jugurtham  variis  proeliis  vicit,  elephantos 
ejus  occidit  vel  cepit,  multas  civitates  ipsius  in  dedi- 
tionem accepit.  Et  quum  jam  bello  finem  positurus 
csset,  successum  est  ei  a  C.  Mario.     Is  Juguilham  et 


Bocchum,  Mauritaniae  regem,  qui  aiixilium  Jugurthae475 
ferre  coeperat,  pariter  superavit.     54.  Aliquanta  er 
ipse  oppida  Numidiae  cepit,  belloque  tenninum  posuit, 
capto    Jugurtha  per    quaestorem    suum    Comelium 
Sullam,  ingentem  virum,  tradente  Boccho  Jugurtham, 
qui  pro   eo   ante  pugnaverat.     Et  duo  trium^thi  de  480 
Jugurtha,  primus  per  Metellum,  secundus  per  Marium, 
acti  sunt.     Ante  currum  tamen  Marii  Jugurtha  cum 
duobus  filiis  ductus  est  catenatus,  et  mox  jussu  Death  of 
consulis  in  carcere  strangulatus.  b.c.  106. 


&b.  Dum   bellum   in  Numidia  contra  Jugurtham  485 
geritur,  Eomani  consules  M.  Manlius  et  Q.  The  cimbrUm 
Caepio  a  Cimbris  et  Teutonibus  et  Tigurinis     b.c.  165. 
et  Ambronibus,  quae  erant  Germanorum  et  Gallorum 
gentes,  \dcti  sunt  juxta  flumen  Ehodanum,  et  ingenti 
intemecione   attriti,    etiam    castra    sua    et    magnam  490 
partem  exercitus  perdidenmt.     Timor  Eomae  grandis 
fuit,  ne  iterum  Galli  Romam  venirent.     Ergo  Marius 
post  victoriam  Jugurthinam  secundo  consul  est  factus, 
bellumque  ei  contra  Cimbros  et  Teutonas  decretum 
est.    Tertio  quoque  ei  et  quarto  delatus  est  consulatus,  495 
quia  bellum  Cimbricum  protrahebatur.    Sed  in  quarto 
consulatu  collegam  habuit  Q.  Lutatium  Catulum.    bQ. 
Cum  Cimbris  itaque  conflixit,  et  duobus  proeliis  du- 
centa  millia  hostium  cecidit,  octoginta  miilia  cepit  et 


5ooducem  eorum  Teutobodum,  propter  quod  meritum 
absens  quinto  consul  est  factus.  Interea  Cimbri  et 
Teutones,  quorum  copia  adhuc  infinita  erat,  ad  Italiam 
transierunt.  Iterum  a  C.  Mario  et  Q.  Catulo  contra 
eos  dimicatum  est,  sed  a  Catuli  parte  felicius.     Nam 

505  proelio,  quod  simul  ambo  gesserunt,  centum  quadra- 
ginta  millia,  aut  in  pugna,  aut  in  fug^,  caesa  sunt, 
sexaginta  millia  capta.  Eomani  milites  ex  utroque 
exercitu  trecenti  perierunt.  Tria  et  triginta  Cimbris 
signa  sublata  sunt.      Is  belli  finis  fuit.     Triumphus 

5ioutrique  decretus  est. 

57.  Anno  urbis  conditae  sexcentesimo  sexagesimo 
The  Civil  and    secuudo  primum  Eomae  bellum  civile 

Mithridatic  Wars.  ^ 

B.C.  88.  commotum  est,  eodem  anno  etiam  Mitn- 
ridaticum.      Causam  bello  civili  C.  Marius  sexies  con- 

5 1 5  sul  dedit.  Nam  quum  Sulla  consul  contra  Mithridaten 
gesturus  bellum,  qui  Asiam  et  Achaiam  occupaverat, 
mitteretur,  isque  exercitum  in  Campania  paulisper 
teneret,  ut  belli  socialis,  quod  intra  Italiam  gestum 
fuerat,  reliquiae  tollerentur,  Marius  afFectavit,  ut  ipse 

520  ad  bellum  Mithridaticum  mitteretur.  Qu^  re  Sulla 
commotus  cum  exercitu  ad  urbem  venit.  58.  lUic 
contra  Marium  et  Sulpicium  dimicavit.  Primus  urbem 
Romam  armatus  ingressus  est,  Sulpicium  interfecit, 
Marium   fugavit,   atque   ita,   consulibus  ordinatis   in 

525futurum  annum  Cn.  Octavio  et  L.  Cornelio  Cinna,  ad 
Asiam  profectus  est.  Mithridates  enim,  qui  Ponti  rex 
erat,    primo    Nicomeden,    amicum    populi    Eomani, 


Bithynia  voluit  expellere,  senatuique  mandavit,  bellum 
se  ei  propter  injurias,  quas  passus  fuerat,  illatunim. 
A   senatu   responsum   est   jVIithridati,   si   id  faceret,  530 
fore  ut  bellum  a  Eomanis  et  ipse  pateretur.      Quare 
iratus  Cappadociam  statim  occupavit,  et  ex  ea  Ario- 
barzanen,  regem  et  amicum  populi  Eomani,  fuga\at. 
59.    Mox    etiam    Bithyniam  invasit    et    Paphlago- 
niam,   pulsis   ex  ea  regibus,    amicis  populi  Eomani,  535 
Pylaemene  et  Nicomede.     Inde  Ephesum  contendit, 
et  per   omnem   Asiam   literas   misit,    ut,   ubicunque 
inventi  essent   cives  Eomani,  uno  die  occiderentur. 
Postea  commisso  proelio  contra  Archelaum,  Mithri- 
datis  in  Achaia  ducem,  ita   sum  vicit,   ut  ex  centum  540 
viginti  miilibus  vix  decern  Archelao  superessent,  ex 
Sullae  exercitu  quattuordecim  tantum  homines  inter- 
ficerentur.     Hac  pugna  cognita,  ^lithridates  septua- 
ginta  millia  lectissima  ex  Asia  Archelao  misit,  contra 
quern  Sulla  iterum  commisit.     Primo   proelio  quin-545 
decim    millia    hostium    interfecta    sunt.       Secundo 
omnes  Mithridatis  copiae  exstinctae  sunt,   Archelaus 
ipse  triduo  nudus  in  paludibus  latuit.     Hac  re  audita, 
Mithridates  cum  Sulla  de  pace  agi  jussit.     60.  Sed 
quum  legati  a  rege  iVIithridate,  qui  pacem  petebant,  550 
venissent,  non  aliter  se  daturum  Sulla  esse  respondit, 
nisi  rex,   relictis   iis,    quae  occupaverat,   ad  regnum 
suum  rediisset.     Postea  tamen  ad  colloquium  ambo 
venerunt.     Pax  inter  eos  ordinata  est,  ne  Sulla  ad 
bellum   civile    festinans   a  tergo    periculum    habere t.   555 


Nam  dum  Sulla  in  Achaia  atque  Asi^  Mithridatem 
vincit,  Marius,  qui  fugatus  erat,  et  Cornelius  Cinna, 
unus  ex  consulibus,  bellum  in  Italia  reparaverunt,  et 
ingressi  urbem    Eomam    nobilissimos  ex   senatu   et 

560  consulares  viros  interfecerunt,  multos  proscripserunt, 
ipsius  Sullae  domo  eversa,  filios  et  uxorem  ad  fugam 
compulerunt.  61.  Uni versus  reliquus  senatus  ex 
urbe  fugiens  ad  Sullam  in  Graeciam  venit,  orans,  ut 
patriae  subveniret.     Ille  in  Italiani  trajecit,  bellum 

565  civile  gesturus  adversus  Norbanum  et  Scipionem  con- 
sules.  Et  primo  proelio  Norbanum  vicit  non  longe  a 
Capua.  Inde  etiam  ad  Scipionem  se  convertit,  et 
ante  proelium  totum  ejus  exercitum  sine  sanguine  in 
deditionem  accepit.    Sed  quum  Romae  mutati  consules 

57oessent,  Marius,  Marii  filius,  ac  Papirius  Carbo  con- 
sulatum  accepissent,  Sulla  contra  Marium  juniorem 
dimicavit,  et,  viginti  millibus  ejus  occisis,  quadringentos 
de  suis  perdidit.  Mox  etiam  urbem  ingressus  est. 
Marium,  ]\Iarii  filium,  Praenesten  persecutus,  obsedit, 

575  et,^d-..iiiQi;tem  compulit.  62.  Cn.  quoque  Carbo, 
consul  alter,  ab  Arimino  ad  Siciliam  fugit,  et  ibi  per 
Cn.  Pompeium  interfectus  est,  quem  adolescentem 
Sulla  atque  annos  unum  et  viginti  natum,  cognita  ejus 
industrii,  tantis  exercitibus  praefecerat,  ut  secundus  a 

580  Sulla  haberetur.  Occiso  ergo  Carbone,  Siciliam  Pom- 
peius  recepit.  Transgressus  inde  ad  Africam  Domitium, 
Marianae  partis  ducem,  et  Hiarbam,  regem  Mauri- 
taniae,  qui  Domitio   auxilium  ferebat,   occidit.     Post 


liaec  Sulla  de  Mithridate  ingenti  gloria  triumphavit. 
Cn.  etiam  Pompeius,  quod  nulli  Eomanorum  tributum  585 
erat,  quartum  et  ^dcesimum  annum  agens,  de  Africa 
triumphavit.  Hunc  finem  habuerunt  duo  bella  funes- 
tissima,  Italicum,  quod  et  sociale  dictum  est,  et  civile, 
quae  ambo  tracta  sunt  per  annos  decem. 

63.  Inter jectis  aliquot  annis,  mortuus  est  Nico-590 
medes,  rex  Bithyniae,  et  per  testamen-  TMrd  Mithndatic 
tum  populum  Eomanum  fecit  heredem.  b.c.  74. 
Mithridates,  pace  rupta,  Bithyniam  et  Asiam  mrsus 
voluit  invadere.     Adversus  eum  ambo  consules  missi 
variam  habuere  fortunam.     Cotta  apud  Chalcedonem  595 
victus  ab  eo  acie,  etiam  intra  oppidum  coactus  est  et 
obsessus.      Sed  quum  se  inde  Mithridates  Cyzicum 
transtulisset,    ut,  Cyzico   capta,    totam   Asiam   inva- 
deret,   Lucullus  ei    alter  consul   occurrit.      Ac  dum 
Mithridates   in   obsidione    Cyzici    commoratur,    ipse  600 
eum  a  tergo  obsedit,  fameque  consumpsit,  et  multis 
proeliis  vicit,  et  postremo  Byzantium,  quae  nunc  Con- 
stantiuopolis    est,    fugavit.  .    Navaii   quoque    proelio 
duces   ejus   Lucullus   oppressit.      Ita   una  hieme  et 
aestate  a  Lucullo  centum  fere  millia  regis  exstincta6o5 

64.  Dum  haec  geruntur,  piratae  omnia  maria  infes- 
tabant  ita,    ut   Romanis,    toto   orbe   victoribus,   sola 
Davigatio   tuta   non   esset.       Quare   id   bellum    Cn. 
Pompeio  decretum  est.     Quod  intra  paucos  menses  6 1  o 
ingenti  et  feKcitate  et  celeritate  coufecit.      Mox  ei 


delatum  bellum  etiam  contra  regem  Mithridaten  et 
Tigranen.  Quo  suscepto,  Mithridaten  in  Armenia 
minore  nocturno  proelio  vicit,  castra  diripuit;  quadra- 

615  ginta  millibus  ejus  occisis,  viginti  tantum  de  exercitu 
suo  perdidit  et  duos  centuriones.  Mithridates  cum 
uxore  fugit  et  duobus  comitibus.  Neque  multo  post, 
quum  in  sues  saeviret,  seditione  Pharnacis,  filii  sui, 
apud   milites  ad  mortem   coactus,    venenum  hausit. 

620  Hunc  finem  habuit  Mithridates.  Periit  autem  apud 
Bosporum,  vir  ingentis  industriae  consihique. 

Qb.  M.    Tullio   Cicerone    oratore   et   C.   Antonio 
Conspiracy  of  cousuHbus,    L.    Sergius    CatiHua,  nobiHs- 

Catiliue.  .      .  .        .  ,    .  ..  .     .      .        , 

B.C.  63.      simi  generis  vir,  sea  mgenu  pravissimi,  ad 

625  delendam   patriam  conjuravit  cum  quibusdam,  claris 

quidem,  sed  audacibus  viris.     A  Cicerone  urbe  expul- 

sus  est.     Socii  ejus  deprehensi  in  carcere  strangulati 

sunt.    Ab  Antonio,  altero  consule,  CatiHna  ipse  proelio 

victus  est  et  interfectus. 

630      QQ'  Julius  Caesar,  qui  postea  imperavit,  cum  L. 

Caesar's  foreign  Bibulo  cousul  est  factus.     Decreta  est  ei 

^B.c.  56.*       Gallia  et  lUyricum  cum  legionibus  decern. 

Is  primo  vicit  Helvetios,  qui  nunc  Sequani  appellantur, 

deinde  vincendo  per  bella  gravissima  usque  ad  Ocea- 

635  num   Britannicum  processit.      Domuit  autem   annis 

novem  fere  omnem  Galliam,  quae  inter  Alpes,  flumen 

Rhodanum,  Ehenum  et  Oceanum  est,  et  circuitu  patet 

ad  bis  et  tricies  centena  millia  passuum.     Britannis 

mox  beilum  intulit,  quibus  ante  eum  ne  nomen  quidem 


Romanorum  cognitum  erat,  et  eos  quoque  victos,  640 
obsidibus  acceptis,  stipendiarios  fecit.  Galliae  autem 
tributi  nomine  annuum  imperavit  sestertium  quadrin- 
gentieSj  Germanosque  trans  Ehenum  aggressus  im- 
manissimis  proeliis  vicit.  Inter  tot  successus  ter  male 
pugnavit,  apud  Arvemos  semel  praesens  et  absens  in  645 
Germania  bis.  Nam  legati  ejus  duo,  Titurius  et 
Aurunciileius,  per  insidias  caesi  sunt. 

67.  Hinc  jam  bellum  ci\dle  successit  exsecrandum 
et  lacrimabile,  quo  praeter  calamitates,  civil  war  between 

...  .  ,  .  Caesar  and  Pompey. 

quae    in    proeliis    acciderunt,    etiam  b.c.  49.         650 

populi  Eomani  fortuna  mutata  est.  Caesar  enim 
rediens  ex  Gallia  victor  coepit  poscere  alterum  con 
sulatum  atque  ita,  ut  sine  dubio  aliquo  ei  defer- 
retur.  Contradictum  est  a  Marcello  consule,  a  Bibulo, 
a  Pompeio,  a  Catone,  jussusque  dimissis  exercitibus655 
ad  urbem  redire.  Propter  quam  injuriam  ab  Arimino, 
ubi  milites  congregatos  habebat,  adversum  patriam 
cum  exercitu  venit.  Consul es  cum  Pompeio  sena- 
tusque  omnis  atque  universa  nobilitas  ex  urbe  fugit  et 
in  Graeciam  transiit.  Apud  Epirum,  Macedonian!,  660 
Achaiam,  Pompeio  duce,  senatus  contra  Caesarem 
bellum  paravit.  68.  C^ssar  vacuam  urbem  ingressus 
dictatorem  se  fecit.  Inde  Hispanias  petiit  Ibi 
Pompeii  exercitus  validissimos  et  fortis-  g^ttie  of  Pharsaiia. 
simos  cum  tribus  ducibus,  L.  Afranio,  b.c.  48.        55^ 

M.  Petreio,  M.  Varrone,  superavit.      Inde  regressus 
in  Graeciam  transiit,  adversum  Pompeiiim  dimicavit. 


Primo  proelio  victus  est  et  fugatus,  evasit  tamen,  quia 
nocte  interveniente  Pompeius  sequi  noluit,  dixitque 

^7°  Caesar,  nee  Pompeium  scire  vincere,  et  illo  tantum  die 
se  potuisse  superari.  Deinde  in  Thessalia  apud  Phar- 
saliam,  productis  utrimque  ingentibus  copiis,  dimica- 
verunt.  69.  Nunquam  adhuc  Komanae  copiae  in 
Death  of  Pompey.   ^^^"^  ^^^^6  Hiajores,  neque  melioribus 

675  B.C.  48.  ducibus  convenerant,  totum  terrarum 
orbem  facile  subacturae,  si  contra  barbaros  ducerentur. 
Pugnatum  tamen  est  ingenti  contentione,  victusque 
ad  postremum  Pompeius  et  castra  ejus  direpta  sunt. 
Ipse  fugatus  Alexandriam  petiit,  ut  a  rege  Aegypti, 

680  cui  tutor  a  senatu  datus  fuerat  propter  juvenilem  ejus 
aetatem,  acciperet  auxilia.  Qui,  fortunam  magis  quam 
amicitiam  secutus,  occidit  Pompeium,  caput  ejus  et 
annulum  Caesari  misit.  Quo  conspecto,  Caesar  etiam 
lacrimas  fudisse  dicitur,   tanti  viri  intuens  caput  et 

685  generi  quondam  sui. 

70.  Mox  Caesar  Alexandriam  venit.  Ipsi  quoque 
Ptolemaeus  parare  voluit  insidias,  qua  causa  regi 
belluni  illatum  est.  Victus  in  Nilo  periit,  inventum- 
que  est  corpus  ejus  cum  lorica  aurea.     Caesar  Alexan- 

690  dria  potitus  regnum  Cleopatrae  dedit,  Ptolemaei  sorori. 
Rediens  inde  Caesar  Pharnacem,  Mithridatis  Magni 
filium,  qui  Pompeio  in  auxilium  apud  Thessaliam 
iuerat,  rebellantem  in  Ponto  atque  multas  populi 
Eomani  provincias  occupantem,  vicit  acie,  et  postea  ad 

695  mortem  coegit 


71.  Postea  Caesar  Romam  regressus  quarto  se  con- 
sulem  tecit,  et  statim  ad  Hispanias  est  War  with  Pompey'a 
profectus,  ubi  Pompeii  filii,  Cnaeus  et  b.c.  45. 
Sextus,  ingens  helium  reparaverant.  Multa  proelia 
fuerunt,  ultimum  apud  Mundam  civitatem,  in  quo  700 
adeo  Caesar  paene  victus  est,  ut,  fugientibus  suis,  se 
voluerit  occidere,  ne  post  tantam  rei  militaris  gloriam 

in  potestatem  adolescentium  natus  annos  sex  et  quin- 
quaginta  veniret.  Denique,  reparatis  suis,  vicit.  Ex 
Pompeii  filiis  major  occisus  est,  minor  fugit.  705 

72.  Inde  Caesar,  bellis  civilibus  toto  orbe  compositis, 
Romam   rediit.     As^ere  insolentius  coepit  et    Death  of 

,  .  Caesar 

contra  consuetudinem  Romanae  libertatis.  B.c.44. 
Quum  ergo  et  honores  ex  su^  voluntate  praestaret,  qui 
a  populo  antea  deferebantur,  nee  senatui  ad  se  venienti  710 
assurgeret,  aliaque  regia  ac  paene  tyrannica  faceret, 
conjuratum  est  in  eum  a  sexaginta  vel  amplius  sena- 
toribus  equitibusque  Romanis.  Praecipui  fuerunt  inter 
conjuratos  duo  Bruti,  ex  eo  genere  Bruti,  qui  primus 
Romae  consul  fuerat  et  reges  expulerat,  C.  Cassius  et7i5 
Servilius  Casca.  Ergo  Caesar,  quum  senatus  die  inter 
ceteros  venisset  ad  curiam,  tribus  et  viginti  \'ulneribus 
confossus  est, 


73.  Anno  urbis  septingentesimo  fere  ac  nono,  inter- 
fecto  Caesare,  bella  civilia  rej^arata  sunt.  Per-  Antony  and  -20 
cussoribus   enim    Caesaris   senatus    favebat.     b.c. '43 


Antonius  consul  partium  Caesaris  civilibus  bellis  op- 
primere  eos  conabatur.  Ergo,  turbata  republica,  multa 
Antonius  scelera  committens  a  senatu  hostis  judicatus 

725  est.  Missi  ad  eum  persequendum  duo  consules,  Pansa 
et  Hirtius,  et  Octavianus  adolescens,  annos  decern  et 
octo  natus,  Caesaris  nepos,  quern  ille  testamento  here- 
dem  reliquerat  et  nomen  suum  ferre  jusserat.  Hie  est, 
qui   postea   Augustus    est   dictus   et   rerum   potitus. 

73oQuare  profecti  contra  Antonium  tres  duces  vicerunt 
eum.  Evenit  tamen,  ut  victores  consules  ambo  more- 
rentur.  Quare  tres  exercitus  uni  Caesari  Aug-usto 
paruerunt.  74.  Fugatus  Antonius,  amisso  exercitu, 
confugit  ad  Lepidum,  qui  Caesari  magister  equitum 

73c  fuerat  et  turn  copias  militum  grandes  habebat.  A  quo 
susceptus  est.  Mox,  Lepido  operam  dante,  Caesar  cum 
Antonio  pacem  fecit,  et,  quasi  vindicaturus  patris  sui 
mortem,  a  quo  per  testamentum  fuerat  adoptatus, 
Eomam  cum  exercitu  profectus,  extorsit,  ut  sibi  vicesimo 

7  40  anno  consulatus  daretur.     Senatum  proscripsit  cum 

Antonio  et  Lepido  et  rempublicam  armis  tenere  coepit. 

Per  hos  etiam  Cicero  orator  occisus  est  multique  alii 

nobiles.     75.  Interea  Brutus  et  Cassius,  interfectores 

Battle  of  Caesaris,    insrens   bellum  moverunt.      Erant 

742  B.C.  42.  emm  per  Macedomam  et  Orientem  multi  exer- 
citus, quos  occupaverant.  Profecti  sunt  igitur  contra 
eos  Caesar  Octavianus  Augustus  et  M.  Antonius,  re- 
manserat  enim  ad  defendendam  Italiam  Lepidus. 
Apud  Philippos,  Macedoniae  urbem,  contra  eos  pugna- 


venmt.  Primo  proelio  victi  sunt  Antonius  et  Caesar,  750 
periit  tamen  dux  nobilitatis  Cassius  ;  secundo  Biutum 
et  infinitam  nobilitatem,  quae  cum  illis  bellum  gesserat, 
victam  interfecenint.  Ac  sic  inter  eos  divisa  est  res- 
publica,  ut  Augustus  Hispanias,  Gallias  et  Italiam 
teneret,  Antonius  Asiam,  Pontum,  Orientem.  76.  In-  755 
terim  a  Sexto  Pompeio,  Cn.  Pompeii  Magni  filio,  ingens 
bellum  in  Sicilia  commotum  est,  iis,  qui        Death  of 

.  .  Sextus  Pompeius. 

superfuerantex  partibus  Bruti  Cassuque,        b  c  45. 
ad  eum  confluentibus.      Bellatum  est  per  Caesarem 
Augustum    Octa\ianum    et    M.    Antonium    adversus76o 
Sextum  Pompeium.  ^  Pax  postremo  convenit.    Interim 
Pompeius  pacem  rupit,  et  navali  proelio  Wctus,  fugiens 
ad  Asiam,  interfectus  est.     Antonius,  qui  Asiam  Orien- 
temque   tenebat,  repudiata   sorore   Caesaris   Augusti 
Octaviani,  Cleopatram,  reginam  Aeg}^ti,  duxit  uxorem.  765 
Contra  Persas  ipse  etiam  pugnavit.    Primis  eos  proeliis 
\icit,  regrediens  tamen  fame  et  pestilentia  labora\'it  et, 
quum  instarent  Parthi  fugienti,  ipse  pro  ^^cto  recessit. 
77.  Hie  quoque  ingens  bellum  ciWle  commo\'it,  cogente 
^ixore  Cleopatra,  regina  Aegypti,  dum  cupiditate  cattie  of   7  70 
muliebri  optat  etiam  in  urbe  regnare.     Victus  b.c.  31. 
est  ab  Augusto  navali  pugna  clara  et  illustri  apud 
Actium,    qui   locus   in    Epiro   est,    ex    qua   fugat   in 
Aegyptum  et,  desperatis  rebus,  quum  omnes  ad  August- 
um transirent,  ipse  se  interemit.     Cleopatra  sibi  aspi-  775 
dem  admisit  et  veneno  ejus  exstincta  est.     Aegyptus 
per  Octavianum  Augustum  imperio  Romano  adjecta 


est,  praepositusque  ei  Cn.  Cornelius  Gallus.      Hunc 

primum   Aegyptus   Romanum  judicem  habuit.     Ita. 

780  Octavianus  bcllistoto  oibe  confectis,  OctavianusAufifUstus 

'  Emperor.  t-  i        i      • 

B.C.  27.  Eomam  rediit,  duodecimo  anno,  postquam 
consul  fuerat.  Ex  eo  rempublicam  per  quadraginta 
et  quattuor  annos  solus  obtinuit.  Ante  enim  duodecim 
annis  cum  Antonio  et  Lepido  tenuerat.  Ita  ab  initio 
785  principatus  ejus  usque  ad  finem  quinquaginta  sex  anni 
fuere.  Obiit  autem  septuagesimo  sexto  anno  morte 
communi  in  oppido  Campaniae  Atella.  Romae  m 
campo  Martio  sepultus  est. 


1.  Romulus  was  the  son  of  a  Vestal  Virgin. 

2.  He  built  a  city  on  the  Palatine  hill. 

3.  A  small  city  was  built  in  the  394:th  year. 

4.  Romulus  had  a  brother  Remus. 


1.  The  Senators  will  call  the  city  Rome. 

2.  He  receives  one  hundred  virgins  into  the  city. 

3.  He  founded  a  state  on  account  of  the  multitude. 

4.  He  himself  had  not  a  wife. 

5.  They  will  bear  off  one  hundred  of  their  virgins. 


1.  All  these  nations  surrounded  the  city. 

2.  The  Sabines  will  stir  up  a  war. 

3.  There  were  tempests  for  five  days. 

4.  While  he  was  reigning  the  seventh  year  was  com- 


5.  After  a  war  had  been  stirred  up  the  neighbouring 

nations  were  conquered. 



1.  The  son  of  Pompilius  will  wage  a  great  war. 

2.  The  wars  did  not  benefit  the  empire. 

3.  Eomulus  was  thought  to  be  a  god. 

4.  The  king  will  divide  the  year  into  ten  months. 

5.  The  temples  of  Eome  were  thought  to  be  sacred. 


1.  The  city,  being  struck  by  lightning,  was  burnt. 

2.  The    Eoman    senators   will    conquer   the    Alban 

thieves ; 

3.  of  whom  some  will  not  wage  war  with  the  sena- 

tors, others  will  be  absent  from  the  city. 

4.  The  house  has  been  enlarged,  and  is  six  miles  from 


6  and  7. 

1.  They  fought  against  Numa's  nephew. 

2.  Mount  Aventine  was  added  to  the  State. 

3.  Ancus   Martius   will   receive   the    kingdom   after 

Tullus  HostiHus. 

4.  A  circus  having  been  built  at  Rome,  Tarquinius 

established  games. 

5.  On  account  of  the  circus  the 'games  will  remain  in 

our  memory. 

6.  Tarquinius  Priscus  was  the  first  to  make  walls  and 

sewers  at  Rome. 

7.  They  were  the  first  to  enter  the  city  in  triumph. 

8.  The  Sabines  also  conquered  the  same  (man). 



1.  Servius  Tullius  was  the  son  of  a  noble  woman. 

2.  Servius    Tullius,    the    Koman  king,  subdued  the 


3.  He  enlarged  the  city  by  joining  three  hills  (to  it). 

4.  He  was  the  first  also  who  subdued  the  Sabines. 

5.  Hitherto  the  census  had  been  unknown  throughout 

the  whole  world. 


1.  All  the  Romans  were  entered  on  the  census  (list). 

2.  Servius  Tullius  was  killed  by  the  wicked  act  of 

his  son-in-law,  the  son  of  a  king. 

3.  The  son  and  daughter  of  a  king  killed  SerWus 

Tullius  in  the  forty-fifth  year. 

4.  Under  Servius  Tullius  the  King,  Rome  vriW  have 

84,000  citizens. 

5.  Tarquinius  will  have  the  daughter  of  a  king  for  a 



1.  Tarquinius  Superbus  was  the  last  of  the  Roman 


2.  Ardea  was  situated  eighteen  miles  from  the  city  of 


3.  His  son  Tarquinius  inflicted  an  injury  on  the  wife 

of  the  most  noble  Collatinus. 

4.  The    son    of    Tarquinius    -wronged    the   wife    of 


5.  The  wife  of  Collatinus,  whom  the  younger  Tar- 

quinius had  wronged,  killed  herself  openly. 



1.  They  took  the  kingdom  away  from  Tarquinius. 

2.  The  gates  having  been  closed,  the  king  with  his  wife 

and  children  was  shut  out. 

3.  On  this  account  Tarquinius  fled  with  his  wife  and 


4.  The  king  will  leave  his  army  in  the  city. 

5.  The  king's  children  will  flee  into  the  city. 


1.  It   is  resolved  that  the  Consul  do  not  hold  the 

power  longer  than  a  year. 

2.  Collatinus  began  to  excite  the  people. 

3.  If  one  consul  wishes  to  be  wicked  he  is  restrained 

by  the  other. 

4.  After  the  king  had  been  driven  out  Collatinus  was 


5.  It  was  resolved  that  he  should  not  have  the  power 

more  than  a  year. 


1.  It  is  resolved  that  no  one  shall  remain  in  the  city. 

2.  All  therefore  removed  from  the  city. 

3.  A  man  who   was   called  Valerius   will   be   made 


4.  The  dignity  made  him  too  insolent. 

5.  Having  collected  many  men  Tarquinius  stirs  up  a 


6.  He  fights  a  battle  in  order  that  he  may  be  restored 

to  power. 

1.  However  Brutus  and^Talj^inius  kill  one  anoUier, 
in  turn.  \^/^v 

2.  Tarquinius   did  not   withdraw 


3.  Brutus  was  mourned  for  by  the  Roman  matrons  as 

the  defender  of  their  chastity. 
i.  Man)^  nations  were  collected  from  all  sides. 

5.  The  dictatorship  was  a  new  dignity  at  Eome. 

6.  The  dictator  withdraws  as  a  conqueror  from  the 



1.  The   Romans   drove  Quintius   Martins   from   the 


2.  The  Volsci,  whose  city  Quintius  had  taken,  received 

the  Roman  leader. 

3.  They    themselves    gave    him    help    against    the 


4.  When  he  had  come  up  as  far  as  the  city  of  Rome 

he  withdrew  his  army. 

5.  Being  angry  he  rejected  the  messengers  who  were 

seeking  peace. 

6.  But  he  was  overcome  by  the  weeping  and  prayers 

of  his  mother  Yeturia  and  his  wife  Volumnia, 
who  came  to  him  out  of  the  city. 


1.  When  K.  Fabius  was  consul  a  war  was  undertaken 
against  the  Veientes. 




2.  Those  who  were  of  the  Fabian  gens  set  out  alone 

against  the  enemy. 

3.  Three  hundred  noble  men  will  fall  in  the  battle. 

4.  One  was  not  taken  to  battle  on  account  of  his 


5.  "When  Fabius  is  consul,  wars  will  be  undertaken. 


1.  Cincinnatus  used  to  possess  a  field  of  two  acres. 

2.  He  is  found  ploughing,  he  kills  the  enemy  and 

frees  the  army. 

3.  Ten   men    called   Decemvirs    received    the   chief 


4.  The  Koman  army  was  besieged  on  Mount  Algidus. 

5.  The  Eomans  will  cultivate  (their)  fields  with  their 

own  hands. 


1.  The  Romans  sent  Camillus  (as)  dictator  against  the 


2.  The  Veientes  will  be  conquered  in  battle. 

3.  The  Romans  had  besieged  the  most  ancient  city  of 


4.  I  shall  stir  up  envy  against  Camillus. 

5.  The  booty  being  badly  divided,  the  Romans  ex- 

pelled Camillus. 

6.  The  city  having  been  captured,  the  Romans  divided 

the  spoil. 


1.  The  Senonian  Gauls  came  and  seized  the  city. 


2.  The  Romans  were  not  able  to   defend  anything 

except  the  Capitol. 

3.  They  blockaded  the  city  and  the  Romans  were  dis- 

tressed with  hunger. 

4.  After  they  had  been  conquered  by  Camillus  they 


5.  Camillus  followed  and  recovered  the  gold  which 

he  had  given  them. 

6.  Afterwards  all  the  standards  were  recovered. 


1.  The  Gauls  withdrew  and  encamped  on  the  other 

side  of  the  river  Anio. 

2.  A  Gaul  challenged  T.  Manlius,  one  of  the  most 

noble  senators,  to  single  combat. 

3.  T.  Manlius  took  away  his  golden  collar  and  placed 

it  on  his  own  neck. 

4.  The  surname  Torquatus  was  given  to  him  and  to 

his  posterity  for  ever. 

5.  The    Gauls    will    have    been    conquered    by   C. 



1.  The    Roman    legions  set  out   against   the    Gauls 

under  the  leadership  of  Camillus. 

2.  A  certain  Gaul  having  challenged  the  best  man 

of  the  Romans  to  single  combat,  M.   Valerius 
offered  himself. 

3.  AYhen  he  was  armed  a  raven  settled  on  his  helmet. 

4.  This  raven  struck  the  Gaul's  eyes  so  that  he  killed 



5.  Therefore  the  Gaul  was  not  killed  by  Valerius  alona 

6.  This  victory  gave  him  the  name  Corvinus, 


1.  The  master  of  the  horse  began  to  be  powerful. 

2.  Q.  Fabius  Maximus  fought  a  battle,  the  dictator 

being  absent. 

3.  The  Eomans  will  have  set  out  to  this  war  under 

the  leadership  of  L.  Papirius  Cursor. 

4.  He  found  an  opportunity  and  returned  to  Rome. 

5.  Q.  Fabius  Maximus  was  not  condemned  to  death 

by  the  people. 

6.  The  Samnites  might  have  fought  successfully. 


1.  When  the  Romans  had  been  conquered   by  the 

Samnites  they  were  sent  under  the  yoke. 

2.  The  Samnites  made  peace  with  the  Romans  who 

had  been  conquered. 

3.  The   Romans   received   a   great   disgrace   at    the 

Caudine  Forks. 

4.  In  that  year  the  Appian  Way  was  constructed  by 


5.  The  Samnites  will  have  shut  up  the  Romans  in  the 



1.  Having  been  made  consul,  he  declared  war  against 

the  Tarentines. 

2.  In  order  to  bring  them  help  Pyrrhus  comes  into 



3.  An  enemy  from  over  the  sea  then,  for  the  first 

time,  fou2:ht  with  the  Romans. 

4.  The  Romans  sent  P.   Valerius    Lae^us  against 


5.  PjTihus'  scouts  were  taken  and  led  through  the 

Roman  camp. 

6.  They  were  sent  away  to  report  to  Pyrrhus  what 

the  Romans  were  doing. 


1.  The  elephants  from  over  the  sea  were  a  help  to  the 


2.  Then  Laevinus  flees  and  night  puts  an  end  {dare 

finem)  to  the  combat. 

3.  Pyrrhus  began  to  take  many  Romans. 

4.  All  the  Romans  who  were  slain  were  buried  by 


5.  The  fierce  faces  of  the  dead  were  seen  by  P}Trhua 

6.  Pyrrhus  says  that  he  is  able  to  be  lord  of  the  whole 



1.  The  city  having  been  laid  waste  by  fire,  Pyrrhus 

came  to  Praeneste. 

2.  The  army  fled  through  fear  of  the  elephants. 

3.  He  honourably  received  the  ambassadors  sent  about 

restoring  the  army. 

4.  The  captives  will  be  sent  to  Rome. 

5.  The  captives  followed  the  consul  from  tlie  city  into 


6.  The  Samnites  will  betake  themselves  to  Pyrrhus. 



1.  Fabricius,  one  of  the  ambassadors,  admired  Pyrrhus. 

2.  I  know  that  you  are  so  poor  that  you  are  despised 

by  the  Eomans. 

3.  Pyrrhus  promised  a  quarter  of  the   kingdom  to 


4.  He  bribed  the  Eomans  to  seek  peace. 

5.  I  shall  send  Cineas  to  seek  peace  on  fair  terms. 

6.  Fabricius,  a  poor  man,  was  not  despised  by  Pyrrhus. 


1.  The  King  of  Epirus  was  not  able  to  bril^e  Fabricius 

by  promising  him  a  fourth  part  of  the  kingdom. 

2.  Pyrrhus'  doctor  promised  to   kill   his   lord   with 


3.  But  Fabricius  would  not  give  him  poison. 

4.  Wherefore  he  was  bound  and  led  back  to  Pyrrhus. 
6.  It  is  very  difficult  to  turn  Fabricius  from  honesty. 
6.  He  is  reported  to  have  said,  "  I  can  turn  the  sun 

from  his  course." 


1.  Fabricius  did  not  conquer  the  king  of  Sicily. 

2.  The  king  then  fled  to  Sicily  with  his  army. 

3.  Ourius  brought  to  Eome  four  elephants,  which  the 

Eomans  dreaded. 

4.  Curius  was  made  consul  with  Cornelius  Lentulus. 
6.  They  set  out  against  Pyrrhus  and  conquered  his 

6.  Pyrrhus   ordered   his    army   to    be   led    back    to 



1.  The  Eomans  had  not  fought  on  the  sea. 

2.  They  prepared  beaked  vessels  which  they  called 

Liburnian  (galleys). 

3.  Duilius  the  consul  is  reported  to  have  said,  "  I  will 

conquer  the  Carthaginian  general." 

4.  And  in  the  fifth  year  of  the  war  he  did  beat  the 


5.  Thirty  ships  were  taken  by  the  Romans. 

6.  This  victory  on  the  sea  was  very  pleasing  to  the 



1.  L.  Manlius  Volso  and  M.    Atilius   Regulus  were 

afterwards  made  consuls. 

2.  They  carried  the  war  over  into  Africa,  and  a  battle 

was  fought  on  the  sea. 

3.  They  conquered,  but  lost  many  ships. 

4.  Pyrrhus  had  fled  to  Tarentum,  and  Hamilcar  fled 

as  far  as  Carthage. 

5.  After  many  ships  had  been  destroyed,  the  Romans 

returned  to  Rome. 

6.  Tvventy-seven  thousand  captives  were  led  back  by 

the  Roman  general. 


1.  Regulus  granted  peace  on  very  hard  conditions. 

2.  The  Lacedaemonians  sent  an  army  as  a  help  to  the 


3.  The  Romans  sought  peace  from  the  Lacedaemonian 

leader  Xantippus. 


4.  *Only  two   thousand  of  the   whole  Roman   army 


5.  The  Lacedaemonians  threw  Eegukis  into  chains. 

6.  Regulus  the  Roman  was  unwilling  to  be  captured, 


1.  Metellus  was  the  leader  of  the  Romans  in  Sicily. 

2.  He  brought  six  elephants  into  Sicily. 

3.  The  general  might  have  led  the  army  to  Rome 

with  great  ceremony. 

4.  The  elephants  were  wandering  through  the  camp 

at  night. 

5.  Twenty  thousand  of  the  enemy  coming  into  Sicily 

were  captured. 


1.  After  this  battle  the  Carthaginian  general  returned 

to  Rome. 

2.  The  Romans  made  an  exchange  of  prisoners  with 

the  Carthaginians. 

3.  The  Carthaginians  asked  Regulus  to  return  to  the 


4.  He  says  that  war  is  a  great  evil  {malum). 

5.  Regulus,  when  he  had  returned  to  Carthage,  ceased 

to  be  a  Roman. 

6.  Being  brought  into  the  Senate  he  said  that  he  had 

returned  to  the  city  to  ask  for  peace. 


1.  I  shall  advise  the  Senate  not  to  make  peace  with 
the  Carthaginians 


2.  The  consul  advised  the  Senate  to  make  peace  with 

the  Carthaginians. 

3.  After  seeking  peace  Regulus  returned  to  Carthage. 

4.  He  advises  the  Carthaginians,  seeking  })eace,  to 

return  to  the  city. 

5.  The  consul  said  that  he  would  not  be  a  slave  to  the 


6.  He  said  that  he  could  not  hold  the  position  of  an 

honourable  citizen  at  Carthage. 


1.  The  Africans  were  preparing  twenty-three  ships 

against  Catulus. 

2.  The  Romans  had  lost  twenty-two  ships  in  a  former 


3.  Twenty-five    African    ships    were    sunk    by    the 


4.  They  took  also  32,000  prisoners. 

5.  The  valour  of  the  Roman  army  was  unlimited. 

6.  The  Romans  brought  back  to  Rome  a  great  weight 

of  gold  and  silver. 


1.  The   Carthaginians   sank   twelve   vessels    of    the 

Roman  fleet. 

2.  Soon  afterwards  Hannibal,  the  Carthaginian  general, 

besieged  Saguntum. 

3.  The  Romans  sent  notice  to   Hannibal  to  abstain 

from  war. 

4.  The  Romans   are   sending  notice  to  Hannibal  to 

abstain  from  war. 


5.  The  ambassadors  come  to  Carthage  to  seek  peace. 

6.  The  ambassadors  came  to  Carthage  to  seek  peace. 


1.  Tiberius  Sempronius  declared  war  against  the  Car- 


2.  Tiberius  Sempronius  is  reported  to  have  declared 

war  against  the  Carthaginians. 

3.  Hannibal  sent  his  brother  Hasdrubal  into  Spain. 

4.  Hannibal  left  20,000  infantry  in  Spain. 

5.  Hannibal  is  said  to  have  crossed  the  Alps  with 

80,000  infantry. 

6.  On  the  arrival  of  Hannibal  the  soldiers  betook 

themselves  to  the  camp. 


1.  Scipio  meets  the  Carthaginians  ;  his  men  flee  and 

he  himself  is  wounded. 

2.  A  battle  having  been  fought  near  the  Trebia,  Sem- 

pronius Gracchus  returned  to  the  camp. 

3.  The  Carthaginians  slew  25,000  Eomans. 

4.  He  defers  the  fight  and  the  enemy  is  conquered. 

5.  An  opportunity  of  fighting  was  found. 

6.  Flaminius  met  the  Carthaginians  near  the  Trebia. 


1.  Both  the  villages  were  called  Cannae. 

2.  I  shall  advise  the  consuls  to  send  a  skilful  general 

into  battle. 

3.  By  delajdng  the  battle  you  will  conquer. 


4.  A  battle  was  fought  at  Cannse  in  the  540th  year. 

5.  He  adi^ised  the  consul  to  delay  the  battle. 

6.  A  city  was  founded  in  Apulia. 


1.  The  Romans  suffered  great  loss  in  the  battle  near 


2.  3,500  cavalry  were  either  captured  or  slain, 

3.  Hannibal  sent  three  pecks  of  gold  rings  to  Carthage. 

4.  The  consul  with  twenty  senators  perished  in  that 


5.  The  enemy  were  dragging  off  the  rings  from  the 

hands  of  our  cavalry. 

6.  No  senators  were  wounded  in  that  great  battle. 


1.  Hannibal  with  his  cavalry   was  approaching  the 


2.  They  slew  his  brother  Hasdrubal. 

3.  After  a  consul  had  come  into  the  camp,  Hannibal 

withdrew  into  the  city. 

4.  The  two  Scipios  ha\ang  been  conquered,  the  con- 

sul will  remain  in  the  camp. 

5.  The  enemy  was  conquered  more  through  their  own 

terror  than  through  the  bravery  of  the  Romans. 


1.  Publius  Cornelius  Scipio,  the  son  of  Publius  Scipio, 

was  twenty-four  years  old. 

2.  The   Africans   will   keep   all  their  gold    in   New 



3.  The  Africans  were  removing   all   their  gold  into 

New  Carthage. 

4.  He  is  thought  to  be  the  first  man  of  his  age. 

5.  Scipio  was  sent  to  carry  on  war  in  Spain. 

6.  There  is  something  divine  in  a  good  man. 


1.  He  was  the  son  of  Masinissa,  the  King  of  the 


2.  He  is  said  to  be  the  son  of  Masinissa,  the  King  of 

the  Numidians. 

3.  The   Carthaginians   are   said   to   have   left    Italy- 


4.  Hannibal,  the  Carthaginian,  made  a  friendship  with 

Scipio,  the  Eoman  general. 

5.  When  this  was  heard,  he  was  ordered  to  retire  into 


6.  Scipio  is  said  to  have  freed  Italy. 


1.  The  consul  sent  a  scout  to  report  to  the  genera! 

what  he  had  seen. 

2.  I  shall  give  the  consuls  a  breakfast  and  send  them 


3.  Three  scouts  were  sent  by  Hannibal  to  Scipio's 


4.  I  have  hardly  seen  more  skilful  generals. 

5.  The  city  being  captured  Scipio  led  his  forces  to 


6.  After  breakfast  the  scouts  were  led  through  the 




1.  The  Punic  War  was  soon  ended. 

2.  A  war  with  the  Macedonians  will  follow. 

3.  The  Carthaginians  will  have  joined  themselves  to 

the  enemy  after  the  battle. 

4.  After  the  founding  of  the  city,  Antiochus  was  made 


5.  I  will  leave  the  city  for  fear  it  should   be  handed 

over  to  the  enemy. 

6.  The  enemy  having  been  put  to  flight,  the  Romans 

granted  peace  to  Antiochus. 


1.  A  general  sets  out  as  legate  to  the  consul. 

2.  Scipio  will  conquer  Hannibal  in  a  naval  battle. 

3.  A  king  of  Magnesia,  a  city  of  Asia,  was  slain  in 

that  battle. 

4.  Fifty  men  had  been  given  to  the  consul  Cornelius 


5.  The  army  flees  that  it  may  not  be  taken  by  Han- 


6.  The  Romans  fought  a  great  battle  near  ISIagnesia. 


1.  War  has  been  undertaken  against  Carthage. 

2.  Hannibal  was  in  command  of  the  cavalry  which 

was  defeated. 

3.  He  is  considered  most  skilful  in  ruling. 

4.  The  city  was  successfully  besieged  by  Scipio 


5.  Hannibal  avoided  that  part  of  the  Roman  army 

where  Scipio  was  fighting. 

6.  The  fear  of  another  general  was  very  great. 


1.  Scipio  was  made  consul  when  a  young  man. 

2.  The  city  of  Carthage  was  destroyed  by  him. 

3.  The  Carthaginians  collect  the  spoils  which  they 

recognise  as  their  own. 

4.  They  afterwards  destroyed  the  ornaments  which 

they  found  there. 
6.  Scipio,  the  Roman  general,  was  called  Africanus. 
6.  The  Romans  recognised  the  valour   of  all   their 



1.  After  this  ignoble  peace,  the  Romans  restored  the 

spoils  to  the  enemy. 

2.  The  consul  commands  them  to  break  the  treaty. 

3.  The  author  of  the  treaty  was  handed  over  to  the 


4.  The   Romans   were   again   avenging   the    broken 


5.  The  disgrace  was  so  great  that  the  author  of  the 

treaty  was  punished. 

6.  The  Romans  made  peace  with  the  Numantini,  who 

were  a  people  of  Spain. 


I.  You  will  not  correct  soldiers  by  punishing  (them). 


2.  The  cities  of  Spain  were  partly  taken  by  the  army 

and  partly  worn  out  by  famine. 

3.  The  city,  having  been  besieged,  was  overthrown. 

4.  At  the  death  of  Attalus,  the  Romans  were  left  his 


5.  By  giving  the  province  to   the  Romans,  Attalus 

made  them  very  rich. 

6.  Without  the  will  of  Attalus  the  Romans  would  not 

have  been  very  rich. 


1.  The  Romans  made  war  against  Jugurtha,  because 

he  slew  his  brothers. 

2.  Adherbal  and   Hiempsal,  friends   of  the   Romans, 

were  slain  by  Jugurtha. 

3.  The  consul  makes  a  peace  (of)  which  the  Senate 


4.  It  is   a  most  disgraceful   thing  to  bribe  a  soldier 

with  money. 

5.  The  brothers  of  Jugurtha,  king  of  the  Xumidians, 

were  slain  by  him. 

6.  In  the  consulship  of  Bestia,  peace  was  made  "vnth 



1.  Metellus,   although   he   corrected  the  army  with 

great  severity,  put  no  one  to  death. 

2.  When  many  cities  had  been  captured  an  end  was 

put  to  the  war. 

3.  Metellus  wiU  be  succeeded  by  Marius. 

4.  Jugurtha  having  been  conquered,    the   elephants 

were  slain  or  captured. 


5.  I  am  about  to  put  an  end  to  that  bloody  war. 

6.  The  consul  began  to  correct  the  army. 


1.  The  town  of  Numantia  will  be  taken,  and  an  end 

will  be  put  to  the  war. 

2.  Jugurtha  was  betrayed  to  the  Eomans  by  Bocchus. 

3.  The  consuls  led  Jugurtha  in  chains  through  the 


4.  The  general  captured  two  cities,  the  first  through 

Metellus,  the  second  through  Marius. 

5.  In  the  consulship  of  Marius  two  triumphs  were 


6.  By  order  of  the  consuls,  the  general  will  celebrate 

a  triumph. 


1.  WTiilst  the  Eomans  carried  on  war  in  Numidia, 

they  were  beaten  with  great  slaughter  by  the 

2.  Marius  defeated  the  Cimbri  and   Teutones,  who 

were  tribes  of  the  Gauls. 

3.  There  is  a  great  fear  among  the  enemy  that  they 

will  be  beaten  by  the  Romans. 

4.  I  shall  have  Catulus  (as)  my  colleague. 

5.  The  Romans  will  offer  the  consulship  to  Marius. 

6.  A  large  part  of  the  army  was  destroyed  near  the 

river  Rhone. 

1.  The  Romans  made  Marius  general  in  his  absence. 


2.  A  more  successful  battle  was  fought  in  Italy. 

3.  Whilst  Marms  engages  with  the  Cimbri,  both  the 

consuls  pass  over  into  Italy. 

4.  Either  Marius  or  Catulus  captured  the  standards. 

5.  Out  of  either  army  many  were  slain. 

6.  For  this  service  the  Romans  will  make  Marius  a 



1.  In  the  sixty-second  year  after  the  foundation  of  the 

city  the  Romans  stirred  up  war. 

2.  Sulla,  when  consul,  stirred  up  war  at  Rome. 

3.  The  consul  will  be  sent  to  carry  on  the  war  in 


4.  Marius  was  made  consul  six  times. 

5.  I  strive  to  be  made  consul. 

6.  The  Social  War  was  carried  on  in  Italy. 


1.  He  was  the  first  to  set  out  from  the  city. 

2.  I  shall  enter  the  city  of  Rome  in  arms. 

3.  Cinna  slew  Sulpicius,  who  had  been  appointed  con 

sul  for  the  ensuing  year. 

4.  Mithridates  declared  to  the  Senate  that  he  would 

banish  the  consul  from  Pontus. 

5.  If  the  Romans  were  to  do  that,  they  would  suffer 

many  injuries. 

6.  Answer  was  returned  to  me,  that  it  would  come  to 

pass  that  the  consul  would  be  driven  out  of  the 



1.  The  kings  will  be  driven  out  of  the  city,  and  will 

be  sent  to  Ephesus. 

2.  Wherever  Sulla  fought  his  army  conquered. 

3.  Out  of  Sulla's  army  only  one  hundred  survived. 

4.  When  the  letter  is  sent,  I  shall  hasten  to  Ephesus. 

5.  When  the  affair  was  known,  the  kings  were  driven 

out  of  the  city  of  Ephesus. 

6.  The  general  orders  the  battle  to  be  commenced. 


1.  Messengers  were  sent  by  King  Mithridates  suing 

for  peace. 

2.  Messengers  are  sent  by  King  Mithridates  to  sue  for 


3.  Sulla  replied  that  he  would  return  to  Eome. 

4.  Sulla  replies  that  he  will  not  return  to  Rome. 

5.  Both  the  generals  hasten  to  the  camp,  which  they 


6.  The  house  of  one  of  the  consuls  was  overthrown. 


1 .  The  Senate  prays  Sulla  to  help  his  country. 

2.  Sulla  will  fight  against  Marius  and  destroy  his  army. 

3.  But  he  will  lose  many  of  his  own  men. 

4.  He  replies  that  he  -will  not  lose  many  of  his  own 

6.  Sulla  comes  to  Italy  to  besiege  Praeneste. 
6.  I  shall  help  Sulla  when  about  to  carry  on  a  civil 




1.  When  Pompey  was  twenty  years  old  he  was  placed 

in  command  of  the  army. 

2.  Carbo  replies  that  he  will  bring^help  to  Domitius. 

3.  He  came  to  Domitius  that  he  might  bring  help  to 


4.  This  war  was  protracted  for  twenty-one  years. 

5.  His  industry  was  so  great  that  he  was  placed  over 

(praeficio)  both  armies. 

6.  The  glory  of  Sulla  was  great,  but  that  of  Pompey 

was  greater. 


1.  At  the  death  of  Nicomedes  the  peace  was  broken. 

2.  The  king  made  his  own  son  his  heir. 

3.  The  consul  met  him  near  Chalcedon. 

4.  And  while  he  was  besieging  him  he  killed  himself. 

5.  Lucullus  replies  that  the  army  is  being  wasted  with 


6.  Nearly  a  thousand  men  were  killed  in  one  battle. 


1.  While   this   was   being   done,  war   was    declared 

against  Pompey. 

2.  And  when  it  was  undertaken,  the  enemy  was  con- 

quered in  a  battle  by  night. 

3.  Mithridates  lost  his  army  together  with  two  cen- 


4.  When  he  had  fled  to  the  city  the  king  took  poison. 

5.  He  was  a  man  of  greater  industry  but  of  less  skill 


6.  The  camp  near  the  Bosphorus  was  destroyed  in  a 
sedition  among  the  soldiery. 

1.  The  consul  will  .banish  from  the  city  Cicero,  a  man 

of  very  noble  disposition. 

2.  He  will  be  sent  to  destroy  the  city. 

3.  The  city  was  taken  and  destroyed. 

4.  He  was  sent  to  apprehend  the  consul. 

5.  The  consul  will  capture  and  slay  Catiline. 

6.  Catiline  will  be  banished  from  the  city  by  the  consul. 


1.  Afterwards  Caesar  was  made  king. 

2.  The  Helvetii  whom  Caesar  conquered  were  after- 

wards called  Sequani. 

3.  In  three  years  Caesar  will  have  conquered  almost 

all  the  Germans. 

4.  Not    even    Caesar    would     have    conquered    the 


5.  The  ambassadors  were  put  to  death  in  the  absence 

of  the  consul. 

6.  War  was  declared  against  the  Britons,   and  the 

legates,  having  fought  three  unsuccessful  battles, 
were  slain. 


1.  A  disaster  befel  the  consul  when  returning  from 


2.  The  consulship  was  offered  to  Caesar,   so  that  he 

might  prepare  for  war  in  Gaul. 


3.  If  Bibulus  is  consul,   I   shall  not  return    to  the 


4.  Caesar  began  to  demand  that  the  Senate  should  not 

declare  war. 

5.  Under  the  leadership  of  Marcellus  the  fortune  of 

the  Roman  army  changed. 

6.  Caesar  had  been  opposed  by  all  the  Senate. 


1.  Having  entered  the  city,  Caesar  will  demand  the 


2.  WTien  night  comes  on,  the  enemy  will  return  to  the 


3.  Caesar  said  that  he  did  not   wish  to  pursue  the 


4.  The  consuls  say  that  they  mil  cross   over   into 


5.  The  people  say  that  they  will  make  him  dictator. 

6.  The  general  said  that  the  army  had  been  put  to 



1.  Caesar  said  that  he  had  never  before  led  a  greater 


2.  A  battle  was  fought  and  the  consuls  were  slain. 

3.  I  shall  ask  to  receive  help  from  the  Senate. 

4.  Pompey  is  about  to  destroy  the  camp. 

5.  Caesar  was  said  to  have  shed  tears  on   account  of 

his  good  fortune. 

6.  By  reason  of  his  (good)  fortune  the  Romans  made 

him  consul. 



1.  Caesar  says  that  he  will  come  to  Alexandria  to  de- 

clare war  against  the  king. 

2.  I  shed  tears  when  I  beheld  the  body  of  the  consul. 

3.  "We  gained  possession  of  the  enemy's  camp  (occt^pc). 

4.  Caesar  wishes  to  be  of  assistance  to  Cleopatra. 

5.  Phamaces  was  conquered  and  put  to  death. 

6.  The  people  gave  the  consul  a  golden  cuirass. 


1 .  Caesar  sets  out  to  Spain  to  renew  the  war  there. 

2.  The  consuls  fled  that  they  might  not  be  slain  by 

the  enemy. 

3.  His  renown  in  warfare  was  so  great  that  he  was 

made  consul  four  times. 

4.  When  he  was  fifty  years  old  he  had  gained  great 

renown  {consequor). 

5.  Caesar  said  that  he  would  set  out  to  Munda. 

6.  Out  of  Caesar's  many  battles  the  last  was  greatest. 


1.  Caesar  acted  most  arrogantly  at  Eome. 

2.  Therefore  the  rest  conspired  against  Caesar. 

3.  The  people  will  confer  honours  according  to  their 

own  will. 

4.  He  used  not  to  rise  to  the  king. 

5.  Twenty-three  Eomans  will  have  been  driven  out. 

6.  Caesar  received  twenty-five  wounds  from  the  con- 




1.  The  two  consuls  will  attempt  to  set  out  to  Rome. 

2.  Caesar's  assassins  committed  many  crimes. 

3.  They  ordered  Caesar's  nephews  to  bear  his  name. 

4.  He  replies  that  Caesar  will  leave  his  nephew  his 

heir  by  will. 

5.  It  turned  out  that  the  enemy  was  defeated  in  the 

civil  war. 

6.  When  many  crimes  had  been  committed,  they  were 

considered  to  be  enemies  by  the  consuls. 


1.  When  both  the  armies  had  been  lost,  the  consuls 

made  peace. 

2.  Many  other  nobles  vnW  set  out  with  the  army. 

3.  Caesar  will  force  the  Senate  to  give  him  two  armies. 

4.  Caesar  adopted  his  nephew  who  was  eighteen  years 


5.  Caesar  will  receive  large  forces  from  Lepidus. 

6.  The  Romans  are  about  to  avenge  Caesar's  death. 


1.  They  will  remain  in  Italy  to  defend  the  cities. 

2.  Augustus  and  Antony  will  set  out  against  Caesar's 

murderers,  whom  they  will  put  to  death. 

3.  The  State  will  have  been  divided  between  Augustus 

and  Antony. 

4.  Many  nobles  who  had  been  conquered  were  slain 

in  this  battle. 


5.  Philippi,   a  city  of  Macedonia,  was  taken  by  the 


6.  He   replied   that   Italy   would    be    defended    by 



1.  They  will  stir  up  a  great  war  in  Sicily. 

2.  After  the  peace  was  broken,  a  battle  was  fought  by 

Pompey  and  Augustus. 

3.  Being    conquered,    he    retreated    from    the   first 

i.  Those  who  remained  suffered  from  the  pestilence. 

5.  He  had  married  the  Queen  of  Egypt  himself. 

6.  They  pressed   the   Romans   hard    as   they   were 



1.  He  desires  to  go  over  to  Augustus. 

2.  Cleopatra,  despairing  of  peace,  kills  herself. 

3.  He  placed  Gallus  over  a  city  which  was  in  Egypt, 
i.  The  Romans  desired  to  have  this  man  as  a  ruler 


5.  The   Romans  used  to  bury  their  generals  in  the 

Campus  Martins. 

6.  The  Master  urging  you  on  {cogo\  you  have  come 

to  the  end. 


2.  Vestalls  vlrginis.  One  of  the  \argin  priestesses  of  the 
goddess  Vesta,  whose  duty  it  was  to  keep  up  the  fire 
perpetually  burning  on  the  altar  in  her  temple. 

Martis,  Mars  the  god  of  war,  and  one  of  the  guardian  deities 
of  Rome. 

4.  annos,  ace.  of  duration  of  time. 

7.  fere  throws  back  emphasis  on  haec,  'just  this.' 

9.  quonun  =  ut  eoricm.     ageret,  subj.,  expressing  purpose. 

12.  urhl.     Dat.  after  vicinas,  an  adj.,  expressing  'nearness.' 

13.  raptarmn,  undfrstand  f«minarum. 

14.  Caenlnenses.  The  people  of  Caenina,  a  Sabine  town 
of  Latium. 

Antemnates.  The  people  of  Antemnae,  an  ancient  Sabine 

Cmstmninos.  The  people  of  Crustumium,  a  highland 
town  of  tlie  Sabines. 

15.  Sabinos.  The  Sabines,  a  powerful  people  of  central 

Fidenates.  The  inhabitants  of  Fidenae,  a  Sabine  town 
five  miles  N.E.  of  Rome. 

Veientes.  The  people  of  Veil,  one  of  the  most  powerful 
cities  of  Etruria,  about  12  miles  from  Rome.  It  was  con- 
stantly at  war  with  Rome  until  taken  by  the  Dictator 

17.  comparulsset.  Translate  as  if  it  were  pluperf.  indie. 
Quum  with  the  pluperf.  subj.  supplies  the  want  of  a  past 
participle  active  in  Latin. 


23.  dvltatl,  dative  after  profuit.  Compounds  of  sum  (except 
possum)  take  the  dative. 

29.  Albanos.  Alba  Longa  was  the  most  ancient  town  in 

32.  mllliarlo,  abl.  of  placei 

34.  Caelio  monte.  Rome,  originally  built  on  Mons  Pala- 
tinus,  grew  rapidly  under  the  kings,  until  completed  by 
Servius  TuUius,  who  drew  a  line  of  fortifications  round  the 
city,  which  comprised  all  the  seven  hills  of  Rome — Palatinus, 
Caelius,  Aventinus,  Viminalis,  Esquilinus,  Quirinalis,  Capi- 

38.  Janiculum.  Mons  Janiculus,  on  the  opposite  side  of 
the  Tiber,  was  united  to  the  city  by  the  Pons  Sublicius. 
Ancus  fortified  it  against  the  Etruscans. 

39.  Ostiam.  Sixteen  miles  from  Rome,  the  Tiber  empties 
itself  into  the  sea,  and  at  this  place  Ancus  built  the  town  of 
Ostia,  on  the  left  bank  of  the  river.  It  was  the  port  of 
Rome  until  the  time  of  the  Emperor  Trajan. 

morbo,  abl.  of  cause. 

42.  circum  ludos  Romanes.  Tarquinius  commemorated  his 
victory  over  the  Latins  by  celebrating  games  in  the  valley 
between  the  Palatine  and  Aventine  hills.  Before  his  death 
a  permanent  building  was  erected,  afterwards  called  Circus 
Maximus.  Here  were  held  the  ludi  Romani  or  Cir censes, 
as  they  were  variously  called,  comprising  chariot  races  and 
other  athletic  contests. 

45.  primusque,  etc.,  'and  was  the  first  to  enter  the  city 
in  triumph.' 

46.  cloacas.  The  cloaca  maxima  of  Tarquinius  was  a 
semicircular  tunnel,  14  feet  wide,  beneath  the  city. 

Capitolium.     The  temple  of  Jupiter  on  Mons  Capitolinus. 

47.  regis  ejus,  gen.  in  apposition  to  And. 
52.  Quirinalem,  etc.     See  above,  line  34. 

54.  censum.  The  registering  of  Roman  citizens  by  the 
censor,  for  the  purposes  of  numbering,  taxing,  and  assigning 
their  position  in  the  state. 

orbem  t^rrarum  =  the  world. 

NOTES.  63 

58.  scelere,  *by  the  wicked  act.' 

62.  Volscos.  Ancient  people  of  Latium;  their  principal 
town,  Gabii. 

63,  Suessam  Pometiam,  also  called  Pomfitla  :  a  town  of  the 
Volsci,  one  of  the  23  cities  covered  by  the  Pomptine  Marshes. 

Tuscis.  The  Etruscans,  near  and  powerful  neighbours  of 
Rome.  Etruria  proper  was  a  confederacy  of  twelve  cities. 
The  Tarquins  themselves  were  of  Tuscan  origin.  They  were 
hostile  to  Rome  until  finally  subdued  by  Cornelius  Dolabella 
B.C.  283. 

65,  Ardeam.  Ardea  was  the  capital  of  the  Rutuli  in 
Latium,  and  originally  the  capital  of  the  kingdom  of  Tumus. 

67.  nobilissimi.  CoUatinus  was  nephew  of  Tarquinius 

72.  Tarquinio.     Dat.  with  notion  of  disadvantage. 

79.  placuit,  'it  was  determined.'  Placet  is  the  technical 
expression  for  decrees  of  the  Senate. 

ne...liaberent,  '  that  they  should  not  have  ;'  subj.  expressing 

80.  annum,  ace.  of  duration  of  time. 

81 .  insolentiores,  '  too  arrogant. ' 

98.  Dictatura.  An  extraordinary  Roman  office.  At  critical 
times,  when  it  became  necessary  to  give  a  man  absolute  power, 
a  Dictator  was  appointed,  who  was  independent  of  the 
Senate,  The  Dictator  chose  another  as  his  deputy,  to 
represent  him  in  his  absence,  who  was  called  magister 
equitum,  originally,  as  his  name  implies,  commander  of  the 

103.  Coriolos.  The  capital  of  the  Volsci,  It  was  taken  in 
B,c.  493  by  C.  Marius,  and  gave  him  the  surname  of 

112.  Fabia  gente.  A  Roman  family  which  produced  several 
distinguished  generals,  notably  Q,  Fabius  Cunctator,  the 
leader  of  the  Roman  army  against  Hannibal  in  the  Second 
Punic  War. 

119.  jugemm.  A  Roman  measure  of  land,  240  feet  in 
length  and  120  in  breadth. 


121.  togam  praetextam.  The  white  gown  with  purple 
border,  worn  by  magistrates  and  the  youth  of  both  sexes. 

124.  qui...liaberent.  A  purpose  is  expressed,  hence  the 
subj .  qui  —  ut  ei. 

125.  Decemviri.  Ten  commissioners,  with  supreme  power, 
were  appointed  in  B.C.  451  to  draw  up  a  code  of  laws.  In 
B.C.  449  they  were  abolished  owing  to  the  tyranny  of  Appius 

134.  Senones.  A  powerful  tribe  of  N.  Gaul.  Some  of 
them  invaded  Italy  in  B.C.  400,  settled  there,  and  harassed 
Rome,  taking  it  in  b.  c.  390.  They  were  subdued  by  Dolabella 
in  B.C.  283. 

Alliam.  The  AUia  falls  into  the  Tiber  six  miles  from 

140.  ne...obsiderent,  *on  condition  that  they   should  not 

145.  trans  Anienem.  Nom.  case  Anio.  Anienem  formed 
from  old  nom.  Anien.     A  tributary  of  the  Tiber. 

155.  tributum  militum.  The  six  principal  officers  of  the 
legion  were  called  trihuni  militum. 

164.  Samnitas.  Samnit-es,  -um,  or  Samnlt-ae,  -arum.  The 
Samnites  were  an  offshoot  from  the  Sabines,  occupying  the 
hilly  country  between  the  Nar,  Tiber,  and  Anio.  Their 
bravery  made  them  the  most  formidable  enemies  that  Rome 
had  to  encounter  in  Italy.  They  invaded  Campania,  and  it 
was  in  consequence  of  the  people  of  Capua  applying  to  Rome 
for  help  that  war  broke  out  between  Rome  and  the  Samnites 
mB.c.  343. 

171.  capitis,  of  the  head,  i.e.,  to  death. 

174.  Furculas  Caudinas.  The  Caudine  Forks,  a  mountain 
pass  near  Caudium  in  Samnium. 

176.  sub  jugum  miserunt  = '  caused  them  to  pass  under  the 
yoke' — a  sign  of  defeat.  The  jugum  was  made  by  fastening 
a  spear  across  two  others  stuck  in  the  ground. 

181.  Aquam  Claudiam — viam  Appiam.  The  Claudian  aque- 
duct and  the  Appian  road  were  made  by  Appius  Claudius 
during  his  censorship  in  B.C.  312. 

186.  Epiri  rex.     Epirus,  a  country  in  the  N.  W.  of  Greece. 

NOTES.  65 

189.  jusslt  eos.  Take  eos  before  dimitti  as  well  as  before 

191.  agerentur.  Subjunctive  because  it  depends  on  re- 
nuntiarent,  another  verb  in  the  subj.  mood. 

193.  quos  incogTiitos. .  .expaverunt  =  'which  the  Romans  were 
unacquainted  with  and  afraid  of.' 

197.  adverse  vianere=  'with  wounds  in  front.' 

199.  se  potuisse,  ace.  with  inf.  after  'cum  hac  voce,' 
which  is  equivalent  to  dicens. 

200.  contigissent  =  '  had  fallen  to  his  lot.' 

203.  Praenesten.  An  ancient  town  of  Latium,  about  20 
miles  S.E.  of  Rome  on  a  steep  hill.  It  was  said  to  have  been 
founded  by  Telt5g6nus,  son  of  Ulysses. 

212.  Romanorum,  objective  genitive,  '  admiration  for  the 

223.  spopondisset,  subj.  because  in  a  dependent  sentence 
in  oratio  obliqua, 

234.  apud  Argos  (Arg-os,  -i,  and  Arg-i,  -omm).  Pyrrhua 
was  killed  by  a  tile  thrown  by  a  woman  from  the  housetops, 
while  he  was  besieging  Argos,  one  of  the  chief  cities  of  South 
Greece,  B.C.  272. 

238.  Libumas.  Light  vessels  built  upon  a  model  taken 
from  the  Libumians,  a  sea-faring  people  that  lived  on  the 
east  shore  of  the  Adriatic.     [Libumae,  -arum,  supply  naves.) 

240.  The  victory  of  Duilius  was  due  to  a  device  by  which 
he  turned  a  naval  into  a  land  battle.  His  ships  were 
furnished  with  grappling-irons,  by  means  of  which  he  seized 
the  enemy's  ships,  and  then  boarded  them.  It  was  the  tii-st 
naval  victory  the  Romans  had  gained. 

248.  Pngnatum  est.  Verbs  intransitive  in  the  active  voice 
are  used  impersonally  in  the  passive.  Translate,  '  a  battle  was 

251,  Carthaginem.  One  of  the  first  cities  of  the  ancient 
world.  It  was  situated  on  the  north  coast  of  Africa,  and 
was  said  to  have  been  founded  by  Phoenicians  from  Tyre 
under  Dido.  The  Carthaginians  became  the  rivals  of  the 
Romans,  with  them  they  were  involved  in  three  wars — kno\\Ti 
as  the  Punic  wars.     The  first  lasted  from  B.C.  265-242.     The 


second  from  the  siege  of  Saguntum,  B.C.  218,  to  the  battle 
of  Zama,  b.c.  202.  The  third  took  place  in  b.c.  146,  when 
Carthage  was  taken  and  destroyed  by  Scipio  Africanus  the 
younger,  and  reduced  to  a  Roman  province. 

2;")7.  nisi,  etc.,  translate,  'except  upon  the  hardest  terms.' 
260.  ita  vlctus  est,  *  was  so  severely  defeated. ' 

267.  Numidas,  Numid-ae,  -arum.  The  Numidians.  A  tribe 
of  native  Africans  dwelling  east  of  Carthage. 

274.  desiisse,  contracted  perf.  inf.  from  desino. 

284.  Lilybseum.  A  fortress  and  harbour  on  the  west  of 
Sicily,  founded  by  the  Carthaginians. 

299.  Saguntum.  A  town  in  south  of  Spain  in  alliance 
with  the  Romans.  Its  siege  by  Hannibal  in  b.c.  218  opened 
the  Second  Punic  War. 

310.  Pyrenaeum.  The  range  of  the  Pyrenees,  separating 
Gaul  from  Spain.  Alpes,  the  Alps.  Hannibal  probably  crossed 
by  the  Little  S.  Bernard,  and  entered  Italy  near  the  modern 
town  of  Aosta. 

315.  Ariminum.  A  town  in  Umbria  on  the  east  coast 
of  Italy. 

318.  Trebiam.    A  stream  in  north  Italy,  flowing  into  the  Po. 

319.  Tusciam.  The  province  of  Etruria.  This  second 
battle  was  fought  near  Lake  Trasimenus  in  Etruria  in  b.c.  217. 

332.  Cannae.     A  village  of  Apulia,  in  S.  Italy. 
338.  Consulares,  men  who  had  held  the  office  of  consul, 
praetorii,  officers  attending  upon  a  Roman  general. 
340.  ita  ut...mitteret.     Subj.  expresses  a  consequence  after 
ita=  '  so  that  he  sent.' 

358.  sua  aetate,  'in  his  own  generation.' 

359.  Carthaginem  Novam.  Nova  Carthago,  a  Carthaginian 
colony  in  the  S.E.  coast  of  Spain,  founded  by  Hasdrubal  in 
B.C.  243,  now  called  Cartagena. 

363.  divinum  quiddam=  'something  of  a  god-like  nature.' 
365.  habere  sermonem  =  '  to  hold  communion. ' 
378.  vidissent,  subj.   because  it  depends  on  renuntiarent, 
a  verb  already  in  the  subj.     See  line  191. 

NOTES.  67 

389.  PWllppum.  Philip,  king  of  Macedon,  a  large  tract  of 
country  in  the  north  of  Greece,  began  to  reign  B.C.  220,  was 
defeated  by  Flamininus  at  Cynoscephalae  B.C.  197,  and  died 
B.C.  179. 

394.  Antiochum.  Antiochus,  sumamed  the  Great,  the 
most  illustrious  of  the  family  of  the  Seleucidae,  kings  of 
Syria.  He  conquered  Caele-Syria,  and  Palestine,  and  being 
urged  by  Hannibal  to  make  war  upon  the  Pvomans,  he  in- 
vaded Greece,  but  was  defeated  in  B.C.  191  at  Thermopylae  by 
them,  and  again  in  e.g.  190  by  L.  Scipio,  at  Mt.  Sipylus  in 
Magnesia,  when  he  was  compelled  to  sue  for  peace. 

414.  Libyssam.  A  town  o^  Kicomedia,  a  province  of 
Bithynia  in  Asia  Minor. 

424.  consultissimus,  'a  most  experienced  man.' 

432.  quae  sua  recognoscebant,  '  which  they  recognised  as 
their  own.' 

436.  avus  ejus  =  his  grandfather  Scipio,  the  conqueror  of 
Hannibal  in  the  Second  Punic  War.  By  birth  the  son  of 
L.  Aemilius  Paullus,  and  not  a  Scipio  at  all,  he  was  adopted 
by  the  son  of  the  elder  Africanus. 

455.  rex  Asiae.  The  kingdom  of  Attains  only  consisted  of 
Lydia,  Phrygia,  Mysia,  and  Caria,  four  pro\"ince3  on  the 
west  coast  of  Asia  ]\lLnor. 

469.  quum...faceret,  '  although  he  did,'  etc. 

475.  Bocchum.  King  of  Mauritania,  a  country  on  the 
X.W.  coast  of  Africa,  between  the  Atlantic  and  Numidia. 
Bocchus  was  father-in-law  of  Jugurtha. 

478.  quaestorem.  The  quaestor  kept  the  funds  of  the 
army,  gave  the  soldiers  their  pay,  and  superintended  the 
distribution  of  spoils  captured  in  war. 

487.  Cimbri.  A  powerful  tribe  occupying  what  is  now 
Denmark.  In  company  with  the  Teutones  and  the  Ambrones, 
neighbouring  tribes,  they  emigrated  southwards  and  invadetl 
Roman  dominions.  The  Teutones  were  defeated  by  Marius 
at  Aquae  Sextiae  (Aix)  in  B.C.  102,  and  the  Cimbri  next  year 
at  Campi  Raudii,  near  Verona,  in  north  Italy.  The  Tigurini, 
who  also  took  part  in  the  invasion,  were  a  tribe  of  the 

518.  beUi  socialis.  The  Social  War  broke  out  in  B.C.  90. 
Eight  tribes  of  Italy,  of  which  the  Marsiaus  were  chief,  joined 


themselves  into  a  confederacy,  nominally  demanding  the 
rights  of  Roman  citizens,  but  really  disputing  the  sovereignty 
of  Rome  over  Italy.  They  were  defeated  by  Pompeius 
Strabo  and  Sulla. 

515.  Mithridatem.  Mithridates  was  a  powerful  king  of 
Pontus  in  Asia  Minor.  He  extended  his  dominions,  seizing 
upon  the  Roman  provinces  of  Asia  and  Achaia,  in  Greece. 
He  himself  was  defeated  by  Fimbria,  and  his  general 
Archelaus  by  Sulla,  and  sued  for  peace,  which  was  granted 
in  B.C.  84. 

530.  A  senatu...pateretur  -  'Answer  was  made  to  Mith- 
ridates by  the  Senate,  that,  if  he  did  that,  it  would  come  to 
pass  that  he  also  would  suffer  war  at  the  hands  of  the 
Romans.'  Fore  ov  fnturum  esse  ut  with  subj.  is  another  way 
of  representing  the  fut,  infinitive. 

532.  Cappadociam.     A  district  in  eastern  Asia  Minor. 

534.  PapMagoniam.    A  district  in  the  north  of  Asia  Minor. 

536.  Ephesum.  The  chief  city  of  Asia  Minor,  on  the 
west  coast. 

540.  Achaia.  A  district  in  south  Greece ;  the  name 
sometimes  stands  for  the  whole  of  south  Greece. 

545.  commisit.     Understand  praelium. 

549.  agi  jussit=  'ordered  a  truce  to  be  made.' 

551.  aliter=  'on  other  terms.' 

560.  proscripserunt.  Proscrihere  =  to  outlaw.  Names  of 
persons  whose  property  was  to  be  confiscated  were  written  up 
in  a  public  place. 

567.  Capua.     The  chief  town  of  Campania. 

582.  Marianae  partis  ducem.  '  A  general  of  the  party  of 

585.  The  antecedent  of  quod  is  the  whole  of  the  principal 
sentence,  quartum  et  vicesimum  annum  agens,  '  when  in  his 
twenty-fourth  year.' 

595.  Chalcedonem.     A  city  of  Bithynia  on  the  Bosporus. 

597.  Cyzicum.     A  Greek  city  of  Asia  Minor,  situated  on 
an  island  in  the  Propontis  (Sea  of  Marmora). 
602.  Byzantium.      A  town  in   Thrace  on   the  Bosphorus, 

NOTES.  69 

founded  by  the  Megarians  in  B.C.  658,  and  a  place  of  great 
importance.  A  new  city  was  built  on  its  site  in  a.d.  330 
by  Constantine,  who  made  it  the  capital  of  the  empire,  and 
changed  its  name  to  Constantinopolis. 

632.  IlljTicuin.  A  Roman  province  on  the  eastern  shore 
of  the  Adriatic. 

633.  Sequanl.     A  Celtic  tribe  of  Gallia  Belgica. 

641.  stipendiarios.  Conquered  nations  who  paid  a  fixed 
monej'-  tribute  to  the  Romans  were  called  stipendiarii  ;  those 
who  paid  at  a  certain  rate  on  their  produce  were  called 

642.  annuum  sestertium  quadringenties.  Translate  'a 
yearly  tribute  of  forty  million  sesterces.'  Annuum  is  a  noun; 
sestertium  is  the  gen.  plu.  of  sestertius.  When  the  distribu- 
tive numerals  in  -ies  are  used  with  sestertium,  centena  millia 
is  understood  :  thus  sestertium  quadringenties  =  100,000 
sestertii  x  400.  The  sestertius  was  a  small  coin  of  the  value 
of  2|d.  before  the  time  of  Augustus,  so  that  the  total  yearly 
tribute  paid  by  the  Gauls  amounted  to  £334,166  13s.  4d.  in 
English  money. 

645.  Arvemos.  A  powerful  Gallic  people  in  Aquitania,  in 
the  modem  Auvergne. 

663.  Hispanlas.  Hispania  (Spain),  was  divided  into  two 
provinces  separated  by  the  river  Iberus,  Hi.^pania  Citerior 
and  Hispania  Ulterior.  Hence  the  two  together  are  some- 
times called  Hispaniae. 

670.  nee  Pompeium  scire  vincere,  '  that  Pompey  neither 
knew  how  to  win  a  victory.' 

671.  Tliessalia.     A  large  part  of  north  Greece. 
674.  in  unum  convenerant,  '  had  come  together. ' 

679.  a  rege  Aeg3rpti.  Ptolemy,  son  of  Ptolemy  Auletes, 
and  brother  of  Cleopatra. 

685.  generi  sui.  Pompey's  third  wife  w^as  Julia,  the 
daughter  of  Julius  Caesar. 

689.  Alexandria  potitus.     Potior  governs  an  abl.  case. 

693.  Ponto.  A  district  in  the  N.E.  of  Asia  Minor  on  the 
shores  of  the  Pontus  Euxinus,  from  which  it  takes  its 


700.  Mundam.     A  town  in  the  south  of  Spain. 

703.  natus  annos  sex  etc.,  'when  56  years  of  age.  Annos^ 
ace.  of  duration  of  time. 

709.  regia  ac  paene  tyrannica,  'other  things  like  a  king 
and  even  almost  like  a  tyrant.' 

714.  duo  Bruti.  Decius  Junius  Brutus  and  Marcus  Junius 

727.  Caesaris  nepos  =  Caesar's  grand-nephew.  Octavius 
was  the  son  of  Atia,  the  daughter  of  Julia,  sister  to  Julius 
Caesar.  Augustus  was  only  a  title  given  him  by  the  Senate 
and  people  in  B.C.  27  to  express  their  veneration  for  hun. 
737.  patris  sui  mortem,  'the  death  of  his  adopted  father.' 
745.  Macedoniam.  Macedonia,  a  large  district  north  of 

761.  convenit,  'was  agreed  upon.'  Convenio  sometimes 
has  a  passive  signification. 

765.  duxit  uxorem,  married,  cf.  our  phrase  'took  to  wife.' 
Ducere  uxorem  is  used  when  speaking  of  the  husband  {i.e.,  to 
lead  to  his  own  house).  The  woman  was  said  nubere  (to  veil) 
vii'o  (for  the  man) . 

768.  pro  victo,  'as  one  beaten.' 

771.  in  urbe,  that  is,  at  Rome. 

773.  Actium.  A  town  in  the  extreme  south  of  Epirus,  on 
the  west  coast  of  Greece. 

779.  Hunc  primum  etc.  Translate  '  This  man  was  the 
first  Roman  ruler  that  Egypt  had.' 

787.  morte  communi,  'an  ordinary  death.' 

788.  in  campo  Martio  (the  plain  of  Mars).  The  Campus 
Martins  was  a  plain  outside  the  walls  of  Rome.  It  was  the 
place  where  the  Romans  held  their  athletic  contests,  and 
where  some  of  the  elections  for  public  oflScers  took  place. 


abl.,  ablative. 
ace,  accusative. 
adj.,  adjective. 
adv.,  adverb. 
com.,  common. 
comp.,  comparative. 
conj.,  conjunction. 
dat.,  dative. 
defect.,  defective. 
demons,,  demonstrative. 
disfrib.,  distributive. 
/*.,  feminine. 
frequent. ,  frequentative. 
gen.,  genitive. 
gov.,  governing. 
imper.,  imperative. 
impers.,  impersonal. 
incept.,  inceptive. 
indecl.,  indeclinable. 
indef.,  indefinite. 
injin.,  infinitive. 
irreg,,  irregular. 

lit.,  literally. 
m.,  masculine. 
n.,  neuter. 
nam.,  nominative 
num.,  numeral. 
part.,  participle. 
pass.,  passive. 
per/  ^  perfect. 
pi.,  plural. 
poss.,  possessive. 
prep.,  preposition. 
pres.,  present. 
pron.,  pronoun. 
reflex.,  reflexive. 
rel.,  relative. 
sing.,  singular. 
subst.,  substantive. 
superl. ,  superlative. 
v.a.,  verb  active. 
V.  dep.,  verb  deponent 
v.n.,  verb  neuter. 
voc,  vocative. 


The  parts  of  regular  Verbs  are  not  given. 

A  dot  occurring  in  a  word  separates  the  parts  of  a  compound. 

Eutropi-us,  -i,  m.,  Eutropius. 
histori-a,  -ae,/.,  a  history. 
R6man-us,  -a,   -um,  adj.,   Ro- 


Imper-ium,     -ii,     ?i.,     empire, 

a  or  a'o,  prcjj.  (jov.  abl. ,  by,  from. 
R6miil-us,  -i,  m.,  Romulus, 
exord-ium,  -ii,  n. ,  a  becrinning. 
hab-eo,  v. a.,  2,  I  have,  1  con- 
sider, I  hold,  I  keep. 
qui,  quae,  quod,  rel.  pron., who, 

Vestal-is,  -e,  adj.,  belonging  to 

Vesta,  Vestal. 
virg-o,    -inis,   /.,    a   virgin,    a 

fili-us,  -i,  m.,  a  son. 
et,  C071J.,  and,  also;  et,  both 

Mars,  Mart-is,  m.,  Mars, 
cum,  prep.  gov.  abl.,  with. 
Rem-us,  -i,  m.,  Remus, 
frat-er,  -ris,  m.,  a  brother, 
un-us,  -a,  -um,  adj.,  one. 
part-us,  -us,  m.,  a  birth. 
e*d-o,  -ere,   -idi,  -itum,  v.a.  3, 

I  bring  forth. 

Is,  ea,  id,  pron.,  he,  she,  it, 

octodecim,  adj.  indecL,  eigh- 

ann-us,  -i,  m.,  a  year. 

nasc-or,  -i,  nat-us  sum,  v.  dep. 
3,  I  am  born. 

urb-s,  -is,/.,  a  city. 

exigu-us,  -a,  -um,  adj.,  small. 

in,  prep,  tvith  abl. ,  in,  on ;  tvith 
ace,  into,  for. 

Palatin-us,  -i,  m.,  the  Pala- 

mon-s,  -Ms,  m.,  a  mountain, 

con*stitu-o,  -ere,  •stitii-i,  'stl- 
tut-um,  v.a.  3,  I  build,  estab- 
lish (sto,  I  stand;  statuo,  I 
cause  to  stand). 

post,  prep.  gov.  ace,  behind, 

Troj-a,  -ae,/.,  Troy. 

excid-ium,  -ii,  n.,  destruction. 

trecent-esimus,  -eslma,  esimum, 
7ium.  adj.,  the  three  hun- 

nonag-eslmus,  -esima,  -esimum, 
num.  adj.,  ninetieth. 

quart-US,  -a,  -um,  ninii.  adj.^ 




con*d-o,  -ere,  -idi,  -itum,  v.a.  3, 

I  build,  I  found, 
civit-as,  -atis,/.,  a  state, 
e  or  ex,  prep.  gov.  ahL,  out  of, 

from,  according  to. 
nom-en,  -inis,  n.,  a  name, 
su-us,  -a,  -um,  poss.  pron.,  his 

own,  her  own,  its  own. 
Rom-a,  -ae, /..  Rome, 
voc-o,  v.a.  1,  I  call,  I  name, 
hie,  haec,  hoc,  demons,  pron., 

fere,    adv.^   almost,  generally, 

about,  nearly, 
ag-o,  ere,  eg-i,  act-um,  v.a.  3, 

I  do,  I  treat,  I  celebrate, 
multitud-o,  -inis,  /.,    a    large 

fin-itimus,     -itima,      -itimum, 

adj.,  bordering  on;  subst.,  a 

re'cip-io,  ere,  recep-i,    recept- 

um,  v.a.  3,  I  take  again,  I 

receive  (re,  capio). 
centum,    num.    adj.   indecl.,   a 

sen-ior,     -ioris,     comp.     adj., 

older;  subst.  pi.,  the  elders, 
elig'-o,    -6re,    'leg-i,    lect-um, 

v.a.  3,  I  pick  out,  I  choose 

(e,  l6go). 
consilium,  -ii,  n.,  advice,  plan, 

counsel,  skill. 
omn-is,  -e,  adj. ,  every ;  pi.  all. 
Senat-or,  -oris,  m.,  a  Senator, 

member  of  the  Senate. 
nomin-o,  v.a.  1,  I  give  a  name 

to,  I  call  (nomen,  a  name). 
propter,    prep.    gov.   ace,   on 

account  of. 

I  senect-us,  -utis, /.,  old  age. 
[  tunc,  adv.,  then,  at  that  time, 
quum,   conj.,  when,   since,  al- 
i       though. 

!  ips-e,  -a,  -nm,  pron.,  the  (man) 
I      himself. 

:  popiil-us,  -i,  m.,  a  people, 
ux-or,  -oris,/.,  a  wife, 
non,  adv.,  not. 
invit-o,  v.a.  1,  I  invite. 
I  ad,  po'ej).  gov.  ace,  to. 
spectaciil-um,  -i,  n.,  a  show,  a 
!  lud-us,    -i,     m.,     a    game,    a 

I  vicin-us,  -a,  -um,  adj.,  neigh- 
na-tio,  -tionis,  /.,  a  nation,  a 
tribe  (nascor,  I  am  bom). 
I  atque,  co72J.,  and. 
rap-io,  -6re,  -ui,  -tum,  v.a.  3, 
I  seize,  I  bear  off. 


!  com"m5v-eo,  -ere,  -mov-i,  -mot- 
j      um,  v.a.  2,  I  stir  up,  I  ex- 
bell-um,  -i,  n.,  war. 
I  injuri-a,  -ae, /.,  a  wrong,  an  in- 
Caenin-enses,  -ensium,   m.  pi., 
the   people   of  Caenlna,  the 
vinc-o,  -ere,  vic-i,  vlct-um,  v.a. 
3,  I  conquer,  I  beat,  I  defeat. 
Antemn-ates,  -atum,  m.  pi. ,  the 
people  of  Antemnae,  the  An- 
Crustum-Ini,   -Inorum,   m.  pi., 
the  people   of  Crustumium, 
the  Crustumini. 



Sab-Ini,    -Inorum,    m.  pL,   the. 

Flden-ates,  -atium,  m.  pi.,  the 

people  of  Fidenae;  the  Fiden- 

Veient-es,    -lum,    m.   pL,    the 

people  of  Veil;   the  Veien- 


oppid-um,  -i,  n.,  a  town, 
cing-o,  -ere,   cinx-i,   cinct-um, 

v.a.  3,  I  surround, 
or-ior,  -iri,  ort-us  sum,  v.  dep. 

4,  I  arise, 
subito,    adv.f   suddenly,  unex- 
tempes-tas,  -tatis, /.,  a  storm, 
com'par-eo,  -ere,  -ui,  v.n.  2,  I 

am  visible,  I  appear, 
reg-num,  -ni,  U;,  a  kingdom,  a 

tric-eslmus,    -esima,    -esimum, 

mim.  adj.,  thirtieth, 
sept-imus,  -ima,  -imum,  num. 

adj.,  seventh, 
de-us,  -i,  m.,  a  god  {voc,  deus, 

/>/.,  dei  or  dii). 
trans '60,  -ire,   "iv-i  or  -i-i,   it- 

um,  v.a.  irreg.,  I  go  across, 
cred-o,    -6re,    -idi,    -itum,   v.a. 

and  n.  3,  I  believe,  I  trust. 
con*secr-o,  v.a.  1,  I  consecrate, 

deify  (cum,  sacro). 
deinde,  adv.,  afterwards,  there- 
per,  prep.  gov.  ace,  through, 
qui-ni,  -nae,  -na,  distrib.  num. 

adj.,  five  each, 
di-es,  -ei,  m.  and/.,  a  day. 
imper-o,  v.a.   1,  I  command,  I 

regn-o,  v.a.  1,  I  reign. 
com-pleo,  -plere,  -plev-i,  -plet- 

um,  v.a.  2,  I  fill  up,  I  com- 

"^^•^'    "      TV. 

]  postea,  adv.,  afterwards  (post, 
[      earn). 

I  Num-a,  -ae,  m.,  Numa. 
!  Pompil-ius,  -ii,  m.,  Pompilius. 
I  rex,  reg-is,  m.,  a  king. 
;  cre-o,  v.a.  1,  1  make. 
I  n"ull-us,  null-a,  null-um  {gen., 
I      nulllus,  dat.,  nuUi),  adj.,  no, 
I      not  any,  subst.,  no  one  {ne, 
\      ullus). 

I  quidem,  adv.,  indeed. 
!  ger-o,    -6re,    gess-i,    gest-um, 
!       v.a.  3,  I  carry  on,  I  wage, 
sed,  conj.,  but. 
minus,  comp.  adv.,  less. 
quam,  adv. ,  how,  than. 
pro -sum,    prod  esse,    profu-i, 
V.  irreg.,  I  am  of  use  to,  I 
benefit  {icith  dat. ). 
nam,  conj.,  for. 
lex,  leg-is,/.,  a  law. 
mos,  mor-is,   rn.,  custom;  pi., 

con'sue-tudo,  -tudinis,  /., a  cus- 
que,  conj.,  and. 
proel-ium,  -li,  n. ,  a  battle, 
jam,  adv.,  now. 
latr-o,  -onis,  m.,  a  robber,  a 

ac,  C071J.,  and. 
semi'barbar-us,   -a,   -um,  adj., 

half  barbarian, 
put-o,  v.a.  1,  I  think,  I  deem, 
de'scrib-o,        -ere,        -scrips-i, 
script-um,    v.a.   3,    I  write 
down,  I  divide, 
decern,  indecl.  num.  adj.,  ten. 



mens -is,  -is,  m.,  a  month  {from 
met-ior,  mens-us  sum,  I  mea- 

in-finl-tus,  -ta,  -tum,  adj.,  un- 
limited, innumerable. 

sacr-um,  -i,  n. ,  a  religious  cere- 
mony, sac-er,  -ra,  -rum, 
adj.,  sacred. 

templ-um,  -i,  n.,  a  temple. 

morb-us,  -i,  m.,  a  disease. 

dexed-o, -6re,  xess-i,  'cess-um, 
v.n.  3,  I  go  down,  I  depart, 
I  die  (cedo,  I  go). 

quadrag-esimus,  -esima,  -esi- 
mum,  num.  adj.,  fortieth, 

ter-tius,  -tia,  -tium,  num.  adj., 


8uc-ced-o,  -ere,  'cess-i,  'cess- 
um,  v.a.,  3,  I  go  after,  I  fol- 
low (sub,  cedo). 

Tull-us,  -i,  m.,  Tullus. 

Hostil-ius,  -ii,  m.,  Hostilius. 

Alb-ani,  -anorum,  m.  ,the  people 
of  Alba,  the  Albans. 

diiodecim-us,  -a,  -um,  num. 
adj.,  twelfth. 

millia-rium,  -rii,  n.,  a  mile- 

ab'sxim,  abesse,  abfu-i,  v.n. 
irreg.,  I  am  distant,  absent. 

al-Ius,  -ia,  -iud  {gen.,  al-ius; 
dat.,al-li),  adj. pron.,  another 
(alii... alii,  some... others). 

ses-tus,  -ta,  -tum,  num.  adj., 

oct-avus,  -ava,  -avum,  num. 
adj.,  eighth. 

decim-us,  -a,  -um,  num.  adj., 

8uper-o,  v.a.  1,  I  am  over,  I 
conquer,  I  overcome. 

ampli-o,  v.a.  1,  I  enlarge. 
ad"jic-io,     -ere,     *jec-i,     "ject- 

um,    v.a.   3,  I   add  to   (ad, 

Caeli-us,   -a,    -um,   adj.,  Cael- 

mon-s,  -tis,  m.,  a  mountain,  a 

triginta,     indecl.     num.    adj., 

du-o,  -ae,  -o,  num.  adj.,  two. 
ful-men,  -minis,  n.,  lightning, 

a  thunderbolt. 
ic-o,   -ere,   -i,   -tum,  v.a.   3,   I 

dom-us,  -us,  /. ,  a  house. 
ard-eo,  -ere,  ars-i,  ars-um,  v.n. 

2,  I  am  on  fire,  I  bum. 


Anc-us,  -i,  m.,  Ancus. 

Marc-ius,  -ii,  m.,  Marcius. 

nep-os,  -otis,  m.,  a  grandson,  a 
descendant,  nephew. 

sus-cip-io,  -ere,  'cep-i,  'cept- 
um,  v.a.  3,  I  take  up,  I  re- 
ceive (sub,  capio),  I  undertake 

contra,  prep.  gov.  ace,  against. 

Latin-i,  -orum,  m,,  the  people 
of  Latium,  the  Latins. 

dimic-o,  v.n.  1,  I  fight. 

Aventin-us,  -a,  -um,  adj.,  Aven- 

Jan-iculum,  -iculi,  n.,  Janicu- 

Osti-a,  ae,  /. ,  Ostia. 

vic-esimus,  -esima,  -esimum, 
num.  adj.,  twentieth. 

per -60,  'ire,  "iv-i  o?*  "i-i,  -it-um, 
v.a.  irreg.,  I  go  through,  I 




Tarquin-Ius,  -li,  m.,  Tarquin 

Prisc-us,  -i,  m.,  Priscus 
accip-io,  -ere,  -cep-i,   cept-um 

v.a.  3,  I  receive,  I  suffer.         ' 
num-grus,  -6ri,  m.,  a  number, 
du'plic-o,  v.a.  1,  1  double  (duo, 

plico,  I  fold).  j 

circ-us,  -i,  m.,  a  circus.  ! 

aedi-flc-o.  v.a.  1,  1  build  (aedes, 

a  house,  facio).  I 

in  stitu-o,  ere,  -stitu-i,  •stitut-  [ 

um,    v.a.    .3,    I    establish,    I  j 

found  (see  constituo,  oh.  ii.). 
nos-ter,  -tra,  -trum,  adj.  pron.,  \ 

our,  belonging  to  us. 
memor-ia,  -ise,  /.,  recollection. 

per  man-eo,       -ere,       -mans-i, 

•mans-um,  v.n.  2,  I  remain, 

I  continue, 
i-dem,    ea-dem,     i-dem    {gen. 

ejus-dem,  dat.  ei-dem),  adj. 

pron.,  the  same.  i 

etiam,  adv.,  even,  also.  ! 

pri-mus,    -ma,    -mum,    superl.  \ 

adj.,  first.  I 

triumpli-o,  v.n.  1,  I  celebrate  a  | 

intr-o,  v.n.  1,  I  enter, 
mu-rus,  -ri,  m.,  a  wall, 
fac-io,  -ere,  fec-i,  fact-um,  v.a. 

3,  I  make,  I  do. 
cloaca,    -ae,    /.,    a    drain,    a 

Capitol-lum,    -li,  n.,  the  Capi- 
incho-o,  v.a.  1,  I  begin. 
oc'cid-o,  -ere,  -i,  "cis-um,  v.a.  3, 

I  kill  (ob,  caedo),  I  slay. 


Serv-ius,  -ii,  m.,  Servius. 

Tull-ius,  -ii,  m.,  Tullius. 

gign-o,  -ere,  genu-i,  genit-um, 
v.a.  3,  I  bring  forth  (genitus, 

no-bilis,  -bile,  adj.,  noble. 

fe-mina,  -minse, /.,  a  woman. 

cap-tlvus,  -tlva,  -tlvum,  adj., 
captive  (capio). 

tamen,  conj.,  nevertheless, 
yet,  however. 

ancill-a,  -ae,  /.,  a  slave,  a  hand- 

quoque,  conj.,  also. 

sublg-o,  -ere,  "eg-i,  -act-um, 
v.a.  3,  I  conquer,  I  subdue 
(sub,  ago). 

tres,  tria,  num.  adj.,  three. 

Quirin-alis,  -die, adj.,  belonging 
to  Quirinus,  Quirinal. 

Vimin-alis,  -ale,  adj.,  Viminal. 

Esquil-Inus,  -ina,  -inum,  ailj., 
belonging  to  the  Esquiliae, 

ad-jung-o,  -ere,  -junx-i,  -junct- 
um,  v.a.  3,  I  join  to. 

foss-a,  -se,  /.,  a  ditch,  an  en- 
trenchment (fod-io,  foss-um, 
I  dig). 

circum,  prep.  gov.  ace,  arovmd. 

duc-o,  -ere,  dux-i,  duct-um, 
v.a.  3,  I  draw,  I  marry. 

cens-us,  -as,  m.,  a  census,  a 

ordin-o,  v.a.  1,  I  arrange,  I  ap- 
point (ord-o,  -inis,  a  straight 

adliuc,  adv.,  hitherto. 

orb-is,  -is,  m. ,  a  circle. 

terr-a,  -ae,/.,  the  earth,  land 



In'cognit-us,  -a,  -um,  adj.^  un- 
known (cognosce,  I  become 
acquainted  with). 

sum,  esse,  fu-i,    v.n.  irreg.,  I 


sub,  prep.  gov.  ahl.,  under, 
de'fer-o,    -re,    -tul-i,    -lat-um, 

v.a.  irreg.,  I  bring  or  carry 

down,  I  confer.,  I  enter  on. 
octoglnta,    indecl.    num.   adj., 

quattuor,    indecl.    num.    adj., 

milli-a,  -wxD^,  thousand, 
civ-is,  -is,  com.,  a  citizen, 
ag-er,  ri,  m.,  a  field,  pi.,  the 

quln-tus,  -ta,  -turn,  num.  adj., 

Bcel-us,  -6ris,  n.,  a  wicked  act, 

a  crime, 
gen-er,  -6ri,  m.,  a  son-in-law. 
Superb-us,  -i,  m.,  Superbus. 
fili-a,  -ae,  /,,  a  daughter  (dat. 

and  abl.  pi.  fili-abus. 


Luc-ius,  -ii,  m.  Lucius. 

ultim-us,  -a,  -um,  adj.  supl., 
last,  farthest. 

Volsc-i,  -orum,  m.,  the  Vol- 

Gab-ii,  -iorum,  m.,  Gabii. 

Suess-a  Pometi-a,  ge^i.  Suess-ae, 
Pometi-ae,  /.,  Suessa  Pome- 

Tusc-i,  -orum,  m.,  the  Etru- 

pax,  pac-is,/.,  peace. 

Ju-^iter,  gen.  Jov-is,m. ,  Jupiter. 
Arde-a,  -ae,/.,  Ardea. 
op-pugn-o,v.a.  1,1  fight  against, 

I  besiege. 
pon-O;   -ere,   pos-ui,  pos-itum, 

v.a.  3,  I  place.,  I  situate^ 
perd-o,  -ere,  -idi,  -Itum,  v.a.  3, 

I  lose, 
juven-is,  -is,  adj.,  young,  jun- 
ior, -loris,  camp.,  younger, 
nobil-issimus,  -issima,  -issimum, 

superl.  adj.  {see  noliilis). 
Collatin-us,  -i,  m.  Collatinus. 
af'fic-io,  -ere,   -fec-i,    fect-um, 

v.a.  3,  I  do  (something)  to. 

Injuria  aflScio,  I  injure  (ad 

facio).,  I  wrong. 
de,  prep.  gov.  ahl.,  of,  concern- 
ing, respecting, 
marit-us,  -i,  m.,  a  husband, 
pat-er,  -ris,  m.,  a  father, 
amic-us,  -i,  m.,  a  friend, 
quer-or,  -i,  quest-us,  -sum,  v. 

dep.  3,  I  complain, 
conspect-us,  -us,  m.,  a  sight,  a 

view  (conspicio). 
sul,  pron.  reflex.,  sing,  and  pi. 

of  himself,  of  herself,  of  itself, 

of  themselves. 


caus-a,  -ae,/. ,  a  cause,  a  reason. 
I  Brut-US,  -i,  m.,  Brutus. 
I  paren-s,   -tis,   ccmi.,   a  parent, 
I      a  kinsman. 
j  con*ci-to,  v.a.  1,1  stir  up,  I  excite. 

ad-im-o,  -ere,  -em-i,  -empt-um, 
I      v.a.  3,  I  take  away. 
j  mox,  adv.,  soon,  afterwards. 
i  exercit-us,  -us,  m.,  an  army. 
i  re-linqu-o,    -ere,    -liqu-i,   -llct- 



um,  v.a.  3,  I  leave,  I  leave 

ven-io,    -ire,    ven-i,    vent-um, 

v.a.  4,  I  come, 
port-a,  -ae,/.,  agate, 
claud-o,  -ere,  claus-i,  claus-um, 

v.a.  3,  I  shut. 
ex"clud-o,    -ere,    'clus-i,     clus- 

mn,  v.a.  3,  I  shut  out. 
vlglnti,     indecl.     num.     adj., 

quinque,  indecl.  num.  adj.,  five, 
liber-i,  -orum,  m.,  children, 
fug-io,     -ere,    fug-i,    fug-itum, 

v.n.  3,  I  flee  away,  I  escape. 

I  fly. 


Mnc,  adv.,  hereupon,  then, 
cons-ul,  -ulis,  m.,  a  consul, 
coep-i,  -isse,  -turn,  defect,  verb, 

I  begin, 
pro,  prep.  gov.  abl.,  instead  of, 

Ut,  conj. ,  that  as,  in  order  that. 
Bi,  conj.,  if. 
mal-us,    -a,    -um,    adj.,    bad, 

v6l-o,  vel-le,  volu-i,  v.  irreg., 

I  am  willing,  I  wish, 
alter,  alter-a,  alter-um,    adj., 

the  other    (of  two),    one   of 

co"erc-eo,   v.a.  2,   I  correct,  I 

restrain  (cum,  arceo). 
plac-eo,  V.71. 2, 1  please;  plac-et, 

-uit,  v.  impers.,  it  is  resolved, 
ne,  conj.,  lest,  that  not,  v^ith 

imper.  mood,  not. 
longius,    comp.    adv.,    longer 

{camp,  o/longe),  more, 
diuturn-itas,  -itatis,  /.,  length 

of  time  (diu,  adv.,  for  a  long 

potes-tas,  -tatis,  /.,  power 

in'solen-s,  -tis,  adj.,  unaccus- 
tomed, insolent,  arrogant 
(soleo,  I  am  accustomed). 

red'd-o,  -ere,  -idi,  -Itum,  v.a.  3, 
I  render,  I  make. 

igitur,  adv.,  therefore,  conse- 

ex*pell-o,  -ere,  'piil-i,  "piils-um, 
v.a.  3,  I  drive  out,  I  ex- 
pel, I  banish. 

Jun-ius,  -ii,  m.,  Junius. 

Lucreti-a,  -ae, /.,  Lucretia. 


statim,  adv.,  immediately, 
sub'lat-us  est,  from  toll-o,  -ere, 

sus*tul-i,  sub'lat-um,  v.a.  3, 

I  take  away, 
dign-itas,    -itatis,  /.,    dignity, 

honour  (dign-us,  worthy), 
enim,  co7ij.,  for. 
quis-quam,   quae-quam,    quic- 

quam,  or  quid-quam,   pron. 

indef.,  any  (person  or  thing). 
man-eo,  -ere,  -si,  -sum,  v.n.  2, 

I  stay,  I  remain, 
ergo,    adv.,    therefore,    conse- 
migr-o,  v.n.  1,  I  remove, 
loc-us,  -i,  m.  (pl.loc-iandloc-a,), 

a  place,  position. 
Valer-ius,  -ii,  m.,  Valerius. 
Pnblicol-a,  -ae,  m.,  Publicola. 
coMig-o,  -ere,    leg-i,  -lect-um 

v.a.   3,   I   collect,    I  gather 

together  (cum,  lego). 
undique,  adv.,  from  all  sides. 



mul-tus,  -ta,  -turn,  adj. ,  much, 
great;  pZ.,  many. 

gen-s,  -tis,/.,  a  family,  a  tribe. 

pos'sum,  po'sse,  pot  ui,  v.irreg., 
I  am  able  (potis^  able,  and 

re-stitu-o,  -ere,  'stitu-i,  stitut- 
um,  v.a.  3,  I  replace,  I  re- 
store (re,  statuo). 


pugn-a,    -ae,    /.,    a    fight,    a 

Arun-s,  -tis,  m.,  Aruns, 
invicem,  adv.,  in  turn,  mutu- 
vict-or,  oris,   m.,   a  conqueror 

(vinco,  I  conquer), 
re'ced-o,  -ere,  •cess-i,  -cess-um, 

v.n.  3,    I   go   back,    I   with- 
matron-a,    ae,   /.,    a    wife,    a 

defens-or,  -oris,  m.,  a  defender 

(def  endure), 
pudic-itia,  -itiae,  /.,  modesty, 

quasi,  adv.,  as,  as  if. 
com'mun-is,  -e,  adj.,  common, 

i.e.,    belonging     equally    to 

Itig-eo,  -ere,lux-i,  luct-um,  v.a. 

2,  I  mourn  for. 
no-nus,  -na,   -num,  num.  adj., 

ex-ig-o,    -ere,    'eg-i,    'act-um, 

v.a.  3,  I  drive  out. 
scc-er,  -6ri,  m.,  a  father-in-law. 
vlndic-o,  v.a.  1,  I  avenge 
ingen-s,  -tis,  adj.,  great, 
nov-us,  -a,  -um,  adj.,  new. 

dicta-tura,  -turae,  /. ,  the  dicta* 

ap"peU-o,  v.a.  1,  I  call,  I  name 

(ad,  pello). 
mag-ister,  -istri,  m. ,  a  master, 
equ-es,  -itis,  com.,  a  horse  sol- 
dier, a  knight;  pi.,  cavalry 

(equus,  a  horse), 
dicta-tor,  -toris,  m.,  a  dictator 

(dicto,  I  say  frequently). 
ob'sequ-or,    -i,    -sequut-us   {or 

■secut-us),  sum,  v.  dep.  3,  I 

attend  upon. 


postquam,  coiy. ,  after  that. 

e-jic-io,    -ere,    jec-i,    •jeet-um, 
v.a.  3,  I  cast  forth  (e,  jctcio). 

Quint-ius,  -ii,  m.,  Quintius. 

dux,  due-is,   7/1.,    a   leader,    a 

Coriol-i,  -orum,  m. ,  Corioli. 

cap-io,  -ere,  cep-i,  capt  um,  v.a. 
o,  I  take,  I  capture. 

con*tend-o,   -ere,   -i,    "tent-um, 
v.n.  3, 1  go  eagerly,  I  hasten. 

irasc-or,  -i,  irat-us  sum,  v.  dep. 
3,  I  am  angry. 

auxil-ium,  -ii,  n.,  help,  assist- 
ance ;  pi. ,  auxiliary  troops. 
!  saepe,  adv. ,  often. 
I  usque, ac??;.,  all  the  way, asfaras. 
'  ac-ced-o, -ere,  xess-i,  'cess-um, 
v.n.    3,    I    approach,    I    am 
added  (ad,  cedo),  I  come  up. 

patri-a,  -ae, /.,  a  fatherland. 

legat-us,   -i,  7n.,  a   messenger, 
a  lieutenant,  a  legate. 

pet  o,  -ere,  -ivi  or  -ii,  itum,  v.a. 
3,  I  seek,  I  ask,  I  sue  for. 

repudi-o,  v.a.  1,  I  reject,  I  re- 



nisi,  conj.,  unless,  except. 

ma-ter,  -tris, /.,  a  mother. 

Veturi-a,  -ae,  /. ,  Yeturia. 

Volumnl-a,  ae,/.,  Volumnia. 

flet-us,  -us,  771.,  a  weeping 
(fleo,  I  weep). 

depreca-tio,  -tionis,  /.,  a  beg- 
ging off,  an  earnest  en- 
treaty,   a  prayer. 

re"mov-eo,  -ere,  -mov-i,  -mot- 
um,  v.a.  2,  I  remove. 


Kaes-o,  -onis,  m.,  Kaeso. 
Fab-ius,  -ii,  m.,  Fabius. 
Tit-us,  -i,  m.,  Titus, 
Virgin-ius,  -ii,  m.,  Virginius. 
trecent-i,   -ae,  -a,   num.   adj., 

three  hundred, 
hom-o,   -inis,   com.,   a  man  (a 

human  being). 
Fab-ius,  -ia,  -ium,  adj.,  Fabian. 
sol-US,    -a,     -um.,    adj.,    alone 

{gen.,  sol-lus). 
itaque,  conj.,  and  so. 
pro'ficisc-or,   -i,    "fect-us   sum, 

V.  dtp.  3,  I  set  out. 
con-cid-o,  -ere,  -i,  v.n.  3,  I  fall 

(cum,  cado). 
omnino,    adv.,   altogether,  en- 
super -sum,  -esse,  -fu-i,  v.  irreg., 

I  am  left,  I  survive, 
tan-tus,  -ta,  -tum,  adj. ,  so  great, 

so  large, 
famil-ia,  -iae,  /.,  a  household, 

a  family, 
ae-tas,  -tatis, /.,  age. 
puer-ilis,     -lie,    adj.,    boyish, 

youthful  (puer). 


I  sequ-or,  -i,   -utus  {or  sec-utus) 
i      sum,  V.  dep.  3,  I  follow. 
Algid-US,  -i,  n.,  Algidus. 
ob-sid-eo,  -ere,  'sed-i,   sess-um, 

v.n.  2, 1  blockade  (ob,  aedeuj. 
L  =  Lucius. 
Cinclnnat-us,  -i,  m.,  Cincinna- 

juger-um,   -i,   n.,   a  juger,   an 

possid-eo,    -ere.    'sed-i,     sess- 
um,  v.a.  2,  I  possess, 
ma-nus,    -nus,   /.,    a    hand,    a 

col-o,  -ere,  ui,  cult-um,  v.a.  3, 

I  cultivate,  I  inhabit, 
ar-o,  v.a.  1,  I  plough. 
in*ven-io,    -ire,    "ven-i,     vent- 

um,  v.a.  4,  I  come  upon,  I 

sud-or,  -oris,  m.,  sweat, 
deterg-eo,  -ere,   'ters-i,    -ters- 

um,  v.a.  2,  I  wipe  off. 
tog-a,  -ae, /.,  a  toga, 
prae'tex-tus,    -ta,    -tum,   adj., 

praetexta,  edged, 
caed-o,  -ere,  cecid-i,   caes-um, 

v.a.    3   (I   cause   to   fall),    I 

hos-tis,  -tis,  m.,  a  stranger,  an 

enemy  (public),     in'imic-us, 

-i,   m.,   an   enemy  (private), 

(in,  amicus), 
liber-o,  v.a.  1,  I  set  free, 
consul-aris,  -are,  adj.,  belong- 
ing  to   a   consul,    consular ; 

subst.,  an  ex -consul, 
cess-o,  v.Ji.  1,  I  cease, 
summ-us,  -a,  -um,  siiperl.  adj., 

highest,  chief. 



decem'vlr-i,  -orum,  m.  pi.,  De- 


1,  I  renew  war, 

re"bell-o,  v. 

I  revolt, 
mitt-o,    -ere,    mis 

v.a.  3,  I  send. 
CamUl-us,  -i,  m.,  Camillus. 
primum,  adv.,  at  first. 
ac-ies,    -iei,   /.,    a    battle,    an 

army  (drawn  up). 
diu,  adv.,  for  a  long  time, 
antiqu-issimus,    -issima,    -issi- 

mum,     superl.     adj.,     most 

Itali-a,  -ae,/.,  Italy, 
dlt-issimus,  -issima,   -issimum, 

superl.    adj.,    richest   (dives, 

Falisc-i,  -orum,  m.,  Falisci. 
invid-ia,    -iae,  /.,    envy,    jeal- 
quod,  co7tj.,  because, 
praed-a,  -ae, /.,  booty,  spoil, 
male,  adv.,  badly,  unjustly. 
di'vid-o,  -ere,    'vis-i,    'vis-um, 

v.a.  3,  I  divide. 
damn-o,  v.a.  1,  I  condemn. 
Ob,  prep.  gov.  ace,  on  account 



Gall-US,  -i,  m. ,  a  Gaul. 
Senon-es,    -um,    m.     pi., 

apud,  prep.  gov.  ace,  near 

flum-en,  -inis,  n.,  a.  river. 
Alll-a,  -ae,  /. ,  Allia. 
occiip-o,  v.a.  1,  I  seize. 


neque  {or  nee),  conj.,  nor  (nee 

. . .  nee,  neither ...  nor ). 
defend-o,    -ere,    -fend-i,    -fens- 

um,  v.a.  3,  I  defend, 
fam-es,  -is,  /.,  hunger,  famine, 
labor-o,  v.n.  1, 1  am  distressed, 

I  suffer, 
exsul-o,  v.w.  1,  I  am  an  exile, 
secut-us,  per/,  part,  of  sequor 

(ch.  xvii. ). 
aur-um,  -i,  n.,  gold, 
ita,  adv. ,  so,  in  this  way. 
d-o,  -are,  ded-i,  datum,  v.a.  1, 

I  offer,  I  give,  I  grant, 
mllit-aris,  -are,  ad/. ,  belonging 

to  a  soldier,  military  (miles, 

a  soldier), 
sign-um,  -i,  n.,  a  standard. 
re-v6c-o,  v.a.  1,  I  recall,  I  re- 


adversus,     p7'ep.     gov.     ace, 

trans,  ])rep.  gov.  ace,  beyond, 

across,  on  the  other  side,  over. 
Ani-o,  -enis,  m.,  the  Anio. 
fiuv-ius,  ii,  m.,  a  river  (duo,  I 

consid-o,  -ere,  'sed-i,  "sess-um, 

v.a.  3,  I  encamp,  I  settle  on. 
Manl-ius,  -ii,  m.,  Manlius, 
sing-ul-aris,  -are,  adj.,  single, 
eertam-en,  -mis,  n.,  a  combat. 
pro'Voc-O;  v.a.  1,  I  challenge, 
torqu-is  {or  -es),  -is,  m.  and  f., 

a  collar, 
aur-eus,  -ea,  -eum,  adj.,  golden 

(aurum,  gold). 
coll  um,  -i,  n.,  the  neck, 
re-s,  -i,  /.,  a  thing,  a  circum- 
stance, property,  an  affair. 



im'pon-o,  -ere,  "posu-i,  -posit- 
um,  V.  a.  3, 1  put  on,  I  xjlace  on. 

perpetu-us,  -a,  -um,  adj.,  per- 

Torquat-us,  -i,  m.,  Torquatus. 

post-6nis,  -6ra,  -6rum,  adj., 
next;  pi.  subst.,  post-eri, 
-eronim,  m.,  posterity. 

cognom-en,  -inis,  n.,  a  surname 
(con,  nomen). 

fug-o,  v.a.  1,  I  put  to  flight,  I 

C=Cai-us,  -i,  ?n.,Caius. 

Sulpic-ius,  -ii,  m.,  Sulpicius. 


leg-io,  -ionis, /.,  a  legion. 

Fur-ius,  -ii,  m.,  Furius. 

qui'dam,  quae'dam,  quod'dam, 
i7idpf.  pron.,  a  certain  one. 

optim-us,  -a,  -um,  superl.  adj., 
the  best. 

tum,  adv.,  then, 

Marc-US,  -i,  m.,  Marcus. 

trib-unus,  -tini,  vi.,  a  tribune. 

mil-es,  -itis,  m.,  a  soldier,  sol- 

of'fer-o,  -re,  obtul-i,  ob*lat-um, 
v.a.  irreg.,  I  oflfer  (ob,  fero). 

pro'ced-o,  -ere,  -cess-i,  'cess- 
um,  v.n.  3,  I  go  forward. 

ann-o,  v.a.  I,  I  arm. 

corv-us,  -i,  m.,  a  raven. 

gale-a,  -ae,  /. ,  a  helmet. 

icom'mitt-o,  -ere,  "mis-i,  'miss- 
um,  v.a.  3,  I  set  on  (to  com- 
bat), I  entrust,  I  commence. 

al-a,  -ae, /.,  a  wing. 

ungu-is,  -is,  m.,  a  nail,  a  claw. 

ociil-us,  -i,  m.,  an  eye. 

verber-o,  v.a.  1, 1  beat,  I  strike. 

Inter-fic-io,  -ere,  -feci,  -fect- 
um,  v.a.  3,  I  kill  (fScio). 

vlctor-ia,  -iae,  /.,  victory 

Corvin-us,  -i,  m.,  Corvinus. 

dic-o,  -ere,  dix-i,  dict-um,  v.a 
3,  I  say,  I  call. 

merit-um,  -i,  n.,  a  service. 


jam,  adv.,  now,  already. 

pot-ens,  -entis,  adj.,  powerful 
[pres.  part,  o/ possum). 

Samn-ltes,  Itium,  m.  pi,  Sam- 

med-ius,  -ia,  -ium,  adj.,  mid- 

inter,  prep.  gov.  ace,  among, 

Pic-enum,  -eni,  n.,  Picenum. 

Campania,  -aniae,  /.,  Cam- 

Apiill-a,  -ae,/.,  Apulia. 

Papir-ius,  -ii,  m.,  Papirius. 

Curs-or,  -oris,  m.,  Cursor. 

hon-or,  -oris,  m.,  honour,  dig- 

red'eo,  -ire,  'iv-i  or  i-i,  -it-um, 
v.n.  irreg.,  I  go  back,  I  re- 


MaxJm-us,  -i,  m.,  Maximus. 

prae*cip-io,  -ere,  •cep-i,  -cept- 
um,  v.n.  3,  I  order. 

abs-ens,  -entis,  adj.,  absent. 

pugn-o,  v.a.  1,  I  fight. 

occa-sio,  -sionis,/.,  opportunity 
(ob,  cado). 

re-pgr-io,  -ire,  repper-i,  -tum, 
I      v.a.  4,  I  tiud. 
I  felic-issime, ac?r.  {superl.  o/feli- 



citer),  most  successfully  (fe- 

de-leo,  "lere,  "lev-i,  -let-urn, 
v.a.  2,  I  destroy,  I  annihi- 

cap-ut,  -itis,  n.y  ahead,  life. 

V8t-o,  -are,  -iii,  itum,  v.a.  1,  I 

fav-or,  -oris,  m.,  a  favouring, 


furc-tila,  -ttlae, /.,  a  little  fork 

(furca,  a  fork). 
Caud-inus,    -ma,    -inum,    adj., 
belonging  to  Caudium,  Cau- 
angust-ia,  -iae, /.,  narrowness; 

111. ,  a  narrow  deiile,  a  pass. 
con'clud-Oj  -ere,   "clus-i,   "clus- 
uni,  v.a.  3,  I  shut  up  (cum, 
dedec-us,  -6ris,  n.,  disgrace, 
jug-um,  -i,  n.,  a  yoke, 
sen-atus,  -atus,  m.,  the  Senate, 
solv-o,  -ere,  -i,  solut-um,  v.a.  3, 
I  unloose,  I  break  (se,  apart, 
luo,  I  loosen), 
necess-itas,    -itatis,   /.,   neces- 
,6-0,  -6ri,  fact-US  sum,  i^ass.  of 

faci-o  (ch.  vii.). 
sept 'em,     num.     adj.    inded., 

tem-pus,  -p5ris,  n.,  time. 
App-ius,  -ii,  m.,  Appius. 
Claud-ius,  -ii,  m.,  Claudius. 
cens-or,  -oris,  w,,  a  censor, 
aqu-a,  ae,  /.,  water,  an  aque- 
Claud-ius,  -ia,  -ium,  adj.  of  or 

belonging  to  Claudius,  Clau- 

in'duc-o,  -ere,  -dux-i,  'duct-um, 

v.a.  3,  I  bring  in. 
vi-a,  -ae, /.,  a  way,  a  road. 
App-ius,  -ia,  -ium,  adj.  of   or 

belonging  to  Appius,  Appian. 
stern-o,  -ere,  strav-i,  strat-um, 

v.a.  3,  I  spread  out,  I  level, 

I  construct. 


inter'jlc-io,    -ere,    "Jec-i,   -Ject- 

um,  v.a.  3,  I  throw  between 

ali'quot,  num.adj. inded.,  some, 

Tarent-ini,  -inorum,  m.pL,  the 

in'dic-o,   ere,    "dix-i,   'dict-um, 

v.a.  3,  I  declare, 
fer-o,    -re,   tul-i,    lat-um,   v.a. 

irreg.,    I   carry,    I   bring,    I 

Pyrrh-us,  -i,  m.,  Pyrrhus. 
Epir-us,  -i,/.,  Epirus, 
trans  "mar-Inus,     -In  a,     -Inum,i 

adj.,  beyond  sea  (mare,  the 

Publ-ius,  -ii,  m.,  Publius. 
Laevin-us,  -i,  m.,  Laevinus. 
explora-tor,  -toris,  m.,  a  scout, 
jub-eo,    -ere,    juss-i,    juss-um,> 

v.a.  2,  I  order, 
cas-trum,  -tri,  n.,  a  fort;  pl.f 

a  camp, 
os'tend-o,    -ere,    -i,    "tens-um, 

v.a.  3,  I  show. 
di"mitt-o,    -ere,    -mis-i,    -misa- 

um,  v.a.  3,  I  send  away  {lit.f 

in  different  directions). 



re"nuntl-o,  v. a.  1,  I  announce, 

quicunque,  quaecunque,  quod- 

cunque,  rd.  pron.,  whoever, 




elephant-us,    -i,    m., 

expavesc-o,  -ere,  "pav-i,  v. a.  3, 
incept.,  I  dread  [lit.,  I  begin 
to  dread). 

nox,  noct-is,  /.,  night,  dark- 

fi-nis,  -nis,  m.  and  f.,  an  end; 
pA.,  territories. 

octingent-i,  -ae,  -a,  num.  adj., 
eight  hundred. 

tract-o,  v.a.  1  [frequent,  of 
traho,  I  draw),  I  draw  out, 
I  treat  [lit.,  I  keep  dragging 

sepel-io,  -ire,  'iv-i  or  "i-i, 
sepult-um,  v.a.  4,  I  bury. 

ad-vers-us,  -a,  -um,  past  jmrt. 
{from  ad"vert-o),  opposite, 

vuln-us,  -6ris,  ».,  a  wound. 

truz,  truc-is,  adj.,  fierce,  wild. 

VTilt-us,  -us,  m.,  the  counten- 
ance, look. 

mor-ior,  -i,  mortu-us  sum,  v. 
dep.  3,  I  die. 

Jac-eo,  -ere,  -ui,  v.n.  2,  I  lie 

vid-eo,  -ere,  vid-i,  vis-um,  v.a. 
2,  I  see;  paf<s.,  I  seem. 

tiQ-isse/rom  fero  (ch.  xxiv.). 

cael-um,  -i,  n.,  the  sky,  the 

vox.  voc-is,  /.,  the  voice,  lan- 

tot-US,    -a,    -um,   gen.,   tot-Iu.s, 

adj.,  the  whole,  entire, 
domln-us,   -i,  m.,  a  master,  a 

talis,  -e,  adj.,  of  such  a  kind, 
con-ting-o,    -ere,    'tig-i,    -tact- 

um,    v.n.  3,  I  happen  to,   I 

befall  (cum,  tango). 


jung-0,  -ere,  junx-i,  junct-um, 
v.a.  8,  I  join. 

se,  reflexive  pron. ,  8hi<j.  and  pi. , 
himself,  herself,  itself,  them- 
selves, recipere  se,  to  be- 
take one's  self. 

Lucan-i,  -orum,  m,  pi.,  the 

Bnitti-i,  -orum,  m.  pi.,  the 

per-g-o,  -ere,  Tex-i,  Tect-um, 
v.n.  3,  I  proceed,  I  go  (per, 

fer-rum,  -ri,  n.,  iron,  a  sword. 

ign-is,  -is,  m.,  fire. 

vast-o,  v.a.  1,  I  lay  waste,  I 

de'popul-or,  v.  dep.  1,  I  lay 
utterly  waste,  I  ravage. 

Praenest-e,  -is,/.,  Praeneste. 

terr-or,  -oris,  m.,  great  fear, 

redlm-o,  -ere,  'em-i,  "empt-um, 
v.a.  3,  I  buy  back,  I  ransom 
(re,  emo). 

cap-tivus,  -tlvi,  m.,  b,  prisoner 
(capio),  a  captive. 

honorifice,  adv.,  honourably. 

sine,  prep.  gov.  abl.,  without. 

pre-tium,  -tii,  n.,  money, 




Fabrid-us,  -ii,  m.,  Fabricius. 
sic,  adv.,  in  this  manner,  so. 
ad'mir-or,  v.  dep.,  1,  1  wonder 

at,  I  admire, 
paup-er,  -6ris,  adj.,  poor, 
co'gnosc-o,  -ere,  •gnov-i,  'gnit- 
um,  v.a.  3,  I  perceive,  I  as- 
certain (cum,  nosco),  I  know, 
par-s,  -tis,  /. ,  a  part,  a  share ; 

'jd.,  a  (political)  party, 
sollicit-o,  v.a.   1,  I  move  vio- 
lently, I  tempt,  I  bribe, 
con'temn-o,      -ere,      'temps-i, 
•tempt-um,  v.a.  3,  I  hold  in 
contempt,  I  despise, 
quare,  adv.,  why?    wherefore 

{aU.  o/quis,  abl.  of  res). 
ad*mira-tio,  -tionis, /.,  admira- 
tion, wonder, 
ten-eo,  -ere,  -ui  {no  supine),  v.a. 

2,  I  hold,  I  have, 
aequ-us,   -a,    -um,   adj.,  even, 

fair,  just, 
cond-itio,  -itionis,  /.,  a  condi- 
tion; pi.,  terms, 
praecip-tlus,   -Ha,    -uum,    adj., 

principal,  distinguished, 
vir,  vir-i,  m.,  a  man. 
Cine-as,  -ae,  m.,  Cineas. 
ar-ma,  -morum,  n.  pi.,  arms. 
ob'tin-eo,  -ere,    'tinu-i,    "tent- 
um,  v.a.  and  n.  2,  I  hold,  I 
obtain,  I  prevail. 


miss-US,  from  mitto  (ch.  xviii. ). 
prius,     comp.     adv.,     before, 

potu-erat, /roTn  possum. 

pro-mitt-o,  -ere,  -mis-i,  miss- 

um,  v.a.  3,  I  send  forward, 

I  promise, 
med-icus,  -ici,  m.,  a  physician, 
venen-um,  -i,  n.,  poison, 
ali-quis,    (ali'quae,)   ali-quid, 

pron.  indef.,  some  one,  any. 
pol'lic-eor,  -eri,   •licit-us  sum, 

V.  dep.  2,  I  promise. 
vinc-io,  -ire,  vlnx-i,  vinct-um, 

v.a.  4,  I  bind  fast. 
re"duc-o,  -ere,  -dux-i,  'duct-um, 

v.a.  3,  I  lead  back,  I  bring 

spond-eo,       -ere,       spopond-i, 

spons-um,    v.a.  2,   I  pledge 

myself,  I  vow. 
ille,  ilia,  illud,  pron.  demons., 

that,  he,  she,  it. 
dif'ficilius,    comp.    adv.,    with 

more   difficulty,    less    easily 

bones-tas,    -tatis,  /.,   upright- 
sol,  s51-is,  m.,  the  sun. 
cur-sus,  -sus,  m.,  a  running,  a 

course  (curro,  I  run), 
a'vert-o,  -ere,  -i,  'vers-um,  v.a. 

3,  I  turn  away. 


Sicill-a,  -ae,/.,  Sicily. 
pro"fect-us,    from     proficiscor 

(ch.  xvi.). 
Man-ius,  -ii,  m.,  Manius. 
Cur-ius,  -ii,  m.,  Curius. 
Dentat-us,  -i.,  m.,  Dentatus. 
Comel-ius,  -ii,  m.,  Cornelius. 
Lentul-us,  -i,  m.,  Lentulus. 
consulat-us,  -us,  m.,  the  office 

of  consul,  consulship. 



re 'cess-itj/rom  recede  (ch.  xiv.). 
Arg-os,  -i,  ace.  Argos,  n.,  Argos 

(also  Arg-i,  -orum,  m.). 
Tarent-um,  -i,  w.,  Tarentum. 


Pun-Icus,     -ica,     -Icum,     adj., 

Punic,  Carthaginian. 
Af-er,  -ra,  -rum,  adj.,  African. 
Dull-ius,  -ii,  m.,  Duilius. 
Cnae-us,  -i,  m.,  Cnaeiis. 
Asin-us,  -i,  m.,  Asinus. 
mar-e,  -is  {  maria),  ?i., 

the  sea. 
nav-is,  -is,  y*.,  a  ship,    a  vessel, 
rostr-atus,    -ata,    -atum,    adj., 

beaked  (rostrum,  a  beak). 
Liburn-us,    -a,    -um,    adj.,   Li- 

frau-s,  fraud-is,/.,  fraud, 
de'cip-io,  -ere,  "cep-i,  ■cept-um, 

v.a.    3,    I    catch,    I    deceive 

(de,  capio). 
Cartliaginieiis-is,  -e,  adj.,  Car- 
quattuordecim,     indecl.     num. 

adj.,  fourteen, 
merg-o,  -ere,  mers-i,  mers-um, 

v.a.  3,  I  immerse,  I  sink. 
octo,  indecl.  num..  adj.,  eight. 
ull-us,    -a,    -um    {geji.    iilllus), 

adj.,  any. 
grat-ior,  -ius  {gen.  -ioris),  comp. 

adj.,  more  pleasing  (gratus). 
ln"vict-us,     -a,     -um,     uncon- 

quered  (vinco). 
plurimum,  superl.  adv.,  mostly, 

very  much. 


Vols-0,  -onis,  m.,  Volso. 

Atil-ius,  -ii,  m.,  Atllius. 

Afric-a,  -ae, /.,  Africa. 

trans •fer-o,  v.a.  irreg.,  I  carry 

across  (fero,  ch.  xxiv. ). 
Hamilc-ar,    -iris,    m.,    Hamil- 

vlct-u8, /?-om  vinco  (ch.  iii.). 
sexaginta,    indecl.   num.    adj., 

re"cip-io  (ch.  ii.),  recipere  se, 

to  betake  oneself, 
retro,  adv.,  backwards, 
a-mitt-o     (mitto,     ch.    xxxi.), 

v.n.  3,  I  lose. 
Regiil-us,  -i,  m.,  Regulus. 
re'man-eo,   -ere,     mans-i,  v.n. 

2,  I  stay  behind,  I  remain, 
saepius,  comp.  adv.,  more  often 

(saepe,  ch.  xv.). 
septuaginta,  indecl.  num.  adj., 

fid-es,  -ei,  /. ,  faith,  trust ;  in 

fidem    accipere,    to    receive 

into  trust,  i.e.,  alliance. 
Carthag-o,  -inis,/,  Carthage. 


n*ol-o,  n'ol-le,  n"Olu-i,  v.a.  and 

n.  irreg.,   I  do  not  wish,    I 

am  unwilling  (non,  volo). 
dur-us,  -a,  -um,  adj.,  hard. 
Lacedaemoni-i,  -orum,  m.,  the 

Xantipp-us,  -i,  m.,  Xantippus. 
tantum,      adv.,     so      greatly, 

quingent-i,  -ae,  -a,  num.  adj., 

five  hundred, 
caten-a,  -ae, /.,  a  chain, 
con-jic-io,  -ere,  'jec-i,  'ject-um, 

v.a.   3,    I    throw    (together) 

(cum,  jacio). 




Metell-us,  -i,  m,.,  Metellus. 

cop-ia,  -iae,  /.,  plenty ;  pi. 
forces,  troops. 

sex,  num.  adj.  indecl.,  six. 

re*liqu-ias,  -a,  -um,  adj.,  re- 
maining, the  rest. 

err-o,  v.n.  1,  I  wander. 

Nmnid-ae,  -arum,  m.,  the 

dediic-o,  -ere,  'dux-i,  •duct- 
urn,  v.n.  3,  I  lead  away. 

pomp-a,  -ae, /.,  ceremony. 


mal-um,  -i,  n.,  a  misfortune, 
per-muta-tio,     -tionis,   /.,     an 

vl'hil {contracted rnl),  n.  indecl., 

de'sin-o,    -ere,    'siv-i   or    "si-i, 

•sit-um,   v.n.  3,  I  leave  off, 

I  cease. 


com"plex-us,  -us,  m.,  an  em- 

suad-eo,  -ere,  'suas-i,  "suas-um, 
v.n.  2,  I  advise. 

Poen-i,  -orum,  m.,  the  Cartha- 

ad-mitt-o,  -ere,  -mis-i,  -miss- 
um,  v.a.  3,  I  admit,  I  allow 
to  come,  I  commit. 

neg-o,  v.a.  and  n.  \,  1  deny, 
I  refuse,  I  say  no. 

Berv'io,  v.n.  4,  I  am  a  slave. 

hones- tus,  -ta,  -turn,  adj., 

re*gred-ior,  -i,  -gTess-us  sum, 
V.  dep.  3,  I  return,  I  retreat. 

supplic-ium,  -ii,  n.,  punish- 
ment, torture, 

ex'sting-uo,  -uere,  'stinx-i, 
"stinct-um,  v.a.  3,  I  put  out 
entirely,  I  kill. 


Lutat-ius,  -ii,  m.,  Lutatius. 
Catiil-us,  -i,  m.,  Catulus. 
Aul-us,  -i,  771.,  Aulus. 
Postum-ius,  -ii,  m. ,  Postumius. 
Albin-us,  -i,  m.,  Albinus. 
quadringent-i,    -ae,    -a,    num. 

adj.,  four  hundred, 
aeg-er,  aegr-a,  aegr-um,  adj., 

sick,  ill. 
a-scend-o,  -ere,  -scend-i,  'scens- 

um,    v.n.    3,    I   ascend    (ad, 

scando,  I  climb), 
vianer-o,  v.a.  1,  I  wound, 
superi-or,     -us,     comp.     adj., 

higher,  former  (superus). 
niybae-um,  -i,  n.,  Lilybaeum, 
virt-us,  -litis,/.,  bravery  (vir, 

a  man),  valour, 
de'merg-o,     v.a.     3,     I     sink 

(mergo,  ch.  xxx.). 
tre'decim,   indecl.    num.    adj.y 

argent-um,      -1,      n.,      silver, 

pond-US,  -6ris,  n. ,  a  weight, 
red'ig-o,    -ere,    "eg-i,    -act-um, 

v.a.  3,  I  bring  back  (re,  ago), 
class-is,  -is,  /. ,  a  fleet, 
duodecim,    indecl.   num.   adj., 

trib-tlo,  -uere,  tribu-i,  tribut- 

um,  v.a.  3,  T  give,  I  yield. 




secund-us,  -a,  -urn,  num.  adj., 

ln*fer-o,    'fer-re,    •tul-i,   il -lat- 
um,  v.a.   irreg.,   I  carry   to 

or  against. 
Hannib-al,  -alis,  m.,  Hannibal. 
Sagnrt-um,  -i,  n.,  Sagnntum. 
Hispani-a,  -ae, /.,  Spain, 
amic-us,  -a,  -um,  adj.,  friendly, 
ag-gred-ior,  -i,   -gress-us  sum, 

V.  dep.  3,  I  begin. 
de-nunti-o,  v.a.  1,  I  give  notice 

abs'tin-eo,  -ere,  -ui,  "tent-um, 

v.n.   2,   I  abstain  from   (ab, 

mand-o,  v.a.  1,  I  order, 
soc-ius,  -ii,  m. ,  an  ally. 
Sagunt-ini,    -Inorum,    m.,    the 

Inter-ea,  adv.,  meanwhile, 
grav-is,  -e,  adj.,  heavy,  severe; 

superl.  gravissimus. 
poen-a,  -ae,  /.,  a  punishment, 

a  loss. 


Scipi-o,  -onis,  m.,  Scipio. 
Tiber-ius,  -ii,  m.,  Tiberius. 
Sempron-ius,  -ii,  m. ,  Sempronius 
In'dict-us  from    indicere    (oh. 

relict-US  from    relinquo    (ch. 

Hasdrub-al,     -alis,     m.,     Has- 

Pyrenae-us,  -i,  m.,the  Pyrenees. 
Alp-es,  -ium,/.,  the  Alps. 
In-vl-us,  -a,  -um,  a(7y. ,  trackless, 

impassable  (in,  via,  a  way). 

pate'fac-io,  -ere,  'fec-i,  'factum, 
v.a.  3, 1  throwopen(ch.  Ixvi. ). 

tra"d-o,  -ere,  -did-i,  -dit-um, 
v.a.  3,  I  hand  over,  I  betray; 
pass.  I  am  reported. 

ped-es,  -itis,  m.,  a  foot  soldier 
(pes,  a  foot),  infantry. 

adduc-o,  -ere,  'dux-i,  'duct- 
urn,  v.a.  3,  I  lead  to,  I 
bring  to. 

Gracch-us,  -i,  m.,  Gracchus. 

advent-us,  -us,  m.,  an  arrival, 
an  approach  (ad,  venio). 

Arimin-um,  -i,  n.,  Ariminum. 

tra'jlc-io,  ere,  'jec-i,  'ject-um, 
v.a.  3,  I  convey  over  (trans, 
across  ;  jacio,  I  throw). 


oc'curr-o,  -ere,  -i,  'curs-um, 
v.n.  3,  I  fall  in  with  (ob, 
curro,  I  run),  I  meet. 

com'miss-us,  -a,  -um,  from 
committo  (ch.  xxi.). 

Trebi-a,  -ae, /.,  the  Trebia. 

amn-is,  -is,  m. ,  a  stream. 

conflig-o,  -ere,  -flix-i,  -flict-um, 
v.n.  3,  I  fight,  I  engage. 

inde,  adv.,  from  that  place, 

Tuscl-a,  -ae, /.,  Etruria. 

Flamin-ius,  -ii,  m.,  Flaminius. 

inter -im-o,  -ere,  'em-i,  'empt- 
um,  v.a.  3,  I  take  away,  I 
kill  (inter,  emo,  I  take). 

ceter,  -a,  -um,  adj.,  the  other. 

dif-fiig-io,  -ere,  'fug-i,  v.n.  3, 
I  flee  (in  diflorent  direc- 

dif-fer-o,  -re,  dis  tul-i,  dl -lat- 
um, v.a.  3,  I  defer,  I  delay. 



impet-us,  -us,  m.,  an  attack, 
frang-o,  -ere,  freg-i,  fract-um, 

v.a.  3,  I  break, 
invent-us   from    invenio    (ch. 



qulngent-esimus,  -esima,  -esi- 
mum,  num.  adj.,  the  five 

Aemil-ius,  -ii,  m.,  Aemilius. 

Paul-US,  -i,  m.,  Paulus. 

P  =  Publius  (ch.  xviii.). 

Terent-ius,  -ii,  w.,  Terentius. 

Varr-o,  -onis,  m.,  Varro. 

amb-o,  -ae,  -o,  adj.  pL,  both, 

mon-eo,  v.a.  2,  I  warn. 

calid-us,  -a,  -um,  adj.,  ardent. 

Inipati-ens,  -entis,  adj.,  im- 

aliter,  adv.,  in  another  manner, 

varum,  adv.,  truly,  but  yet. 

Im  patienti-a,  ae,  /.,  im- 
■  patience. 

Vic-US,  -i,  m. ,  a  village. 

Cann-ae,  -arum,/.,  Cannae. 


saucl-o,  v.a.  1,  I  wound. 

damn-um,  -i,  7i.,  loss,  hurt. 

praetor-ius,  -ia,  -ium,  adj. ,  be- 
longing to  a  praetor,  suhst. 
an  ex-praetor. 

mod-ius,  -ii,  m.,  a  peck. 

annul-us,  -i,  w.,  a  ring,  dim- 
inutive of  annus  (ch.  i. ) 

Carthag-o,  -mis,/.,  Carthage. 

de'trah-o,  -ere,  'trax-i,  'tract- 
um,  v.a.  3,  I  draw  off. 

iibi,  adv.,  where,  when. 


met-us,  -us,  m.,  fear, 
integ-er,  -ra,  rum,  adj.,  whole, 

cas-us,   -us,   m.,  a  falling,  an 

accident  (cado). 
magis, comj9.  ac^v,, more, rather. 


tan'dem,  adv.,  at  length. 

ibrdem,  adv..,  in  the  same 

nat-us /rom  nascor  (ch.  i.). 

post-6rior,  -erius,  comp.  adv., 
next  after,  later  (post). 

ap*para-tus,  -tus,  m.,  prepara- 
tion, equipment  (ad,  paro). 

fact-US /ro77i  facio  (ch.  vii. ). 

div-inus,  -ina,  -Inum,  adj.,  di- 

quid 'dam  from  quidam  (ch. 

in'sum,  'esse,  'fu-i,  v.  irreg., 
I  am  in. 

ex'istim-o,  v.a.  1,  I  consider, 
I  think. 

ad "60,  adv.,  to  such  an  extent. 

num-en,  -mis,  n.,  a  god. 

ser-mo,  -monis,  m.,  talk,  con- 


Syph-ax,  -acis,  m.,  Syphax. 
Numid-ia,  -iae,  /. ,  Numidia. 
con'jung-o,  -ere,  -junx-i,  -junct. 
um,  V.  a.  3,  I  join  (together). 
spol-ium,  -ii,  n.,  spoil, 
aud-io,  V.a.  4.  I  hear. 



de"ser-o,  -ere,  -ui,  -turn,  v. a.  3, 

I  leave,  I  abandon. 
fl-eo,  -ere,  flev-i,  flet-um,  v.n, 

2,  I  cry,  I  weep, 
re'liqu-isse  from  relinquo  (ch. 

Masinlss-a,  ae,  m.,  Masinissa. 
amlc-itia,  -itiae,  /. ,  friendship, 
fec-erat /rom  facio  (ch.  vii. ). 


capt-us/roTO  capio  (ch,  vii.). 
circimi'duc-o,  -ere,  'dux-i,  -duct- 

um,  v.a.  3,  I  lead  round, 
prand-ium,    -ii,    w.,    luncheon, 

uter'que,  utra*que,  utrum'que, 

adj.,    both,     each     (singly), 

compare  with  ambo  (ch.  xl. ) . 
iii"stni-o,  -ere,  'strux-i,  -struct- 

um,    v.a.  3,   I   draw  up  in 

qual-is,   -e,   adj.,   such   as,    of 

what    kind    {see    talis,    ch. 


vix,  adv.,  scarcely,  hardly. 

peri-tus,  -ta,  -turn,  adj.,  ex- 
perienced, skilful. 

e'duc-o,  -ere,  'dux-i,  "duct-um, 
v.a.  3,  I  lead  out. 

paene,  adv.,  nearly,  almost. 

postremo,  adv.,  lastly,  at  last 

e"vad-o,  -ere,  'vas-i,  "vas-um, 
v.n.  3,  I  go  out,  I  slip  off,  I 

glo-ria,  -riae,/.,  glory,  renown. 

trans 'ig-o,  -ere,    eg-i,  -act-um,  i 

v.a.   3,    I   bring   to   an   end 

(trans,  ago). 
Macedon-Icus,  -ica,  -icum,  adj.y 

Philipp-us,  -i,  m.,  Philip, 
quinquag-esimus,  -esima,  -esi- 

mum,  num.  adj.,  fiftieth. 
Flamimn-us,  -i,  m.,  Flaminln- 

prospere,  adv.,  successfully, 
dat-us,  from  do  (ch.  xix. ). 
Syri-acus,    -aca,    -acum,    adj., 

Antiocli-us,  -i,  m.,  Antiochus. 
M'  =  Manius. 
Acil-ius,  -ii,  m.,  Acilius. 
Glahr-io,  -ionis,  m.,  Glabrio. 
Achai-a,  -ae, /.,  Achaia. 
bene,  adv.,  well, 
noct-umus,  -luna,  -umum,a<(;., 

nocturnal,  at  night. 


Afrlc-anus,  -ani,  m.,  Africanus. 
nav-alis,  -iile,  adj.,  naval, 
circa,  prep.  gov.  ace,  around. 
Sipyl-us,  -i,  771.,  Sipylus. 
Magnesi-a,  -ae, /.,  Magnesia. 
Asi-a,  -ae, /.,  Asia, 
fund-o,  -ere,  fud-i,  fus-um,  v.a. 

3,  I  pour  out,  I  rout,  I  shed. 
quinquaglnta,nwm.  adj.  iiidecl.t 

Prusi-as,  -ae,  m.,  Prusias. 
Bithynl-a,  -ae,/.,  Bithynia. 
re'pet-o,  -ere,  petiv-ior  "peti-i, 

•petit-um,   v.a.  3,  I  demand 

back,  I  bring  back. 
bib-o,    -ere,   bib-i  {no  supine), 

v.a.  3,  I  drink. 



Libyss-a,  -ae, /.,  Libyssa. 
Nicomedi-euses,    -ensium,    m., 
the  Nicomedians. 


Phanie-a,  -ae,  m.,  Phamea. 
equit-atus,  -atus,  m.,  cavalry, 
prae'sum,    -esse,    'fu-i,  v.n.,  I 

am  over,  I  have  command  of 

[gov.  dat.). 
ibi,  adv.,  there, 
milit-o,  v.n.  1,  I  serve  (in  the 

reverent-ia,    -iae,   /.,    respect, 

parat-issimus,  superl.  of  per/. 

part.  o/*paro  (ch.  xxx.). 
consult-us,  -a,  -um,  per/,  part. 

o/consulo,  knowing,  skilful, 
hab-eor,    -eri,    habit-us    sum, 

pass.  V.  2,  I  am  considered, 

regarded  (habeo,  ch.  i.). 
vel. . . vel,  conj.,  either. . .or  (volo, 

I  wish). 
vTt-o,  v.a.  1,  I  avoid. 


adj. , 

cla-rus,    -ra,    -rum, 

nowned,  famous, 
diru-o,  -ere,  -i,  -turn,  v.a.  3,  I 

var-ius,  -ia,  -ium,  adj.,  various, 
orna-mentum,    -menti,    n.,    an 

re'cognosc-o,    -ere,     •cognov-i, 

•cognit-um,  v.a.  3,  I  recog- 
septingent-esimus,  -esima,  -esi- 

mum,  nvm.   adj.,  the  seven 


av-us,  -i,  m.,  a  grandfather,  an 

mer-eo,  v.a.  2,  I  get,  I  deserve, 
scilicet,  adv.,  namely 

Numant-Ini,   -inorum,   m.,  the 

opulent-issimus,  -issima,  -issi- 

mum,    superl.    adj.,   richest 

(ops,  wealth). 
i"gnobil-is,  -e,  adj.,  ignoble. 
Mancin-us,  -i,  ni.,  Mancinus. 
iterum,    adj.,   a  second  time, 

in*fam-is,    -e,    adj.,   disgrace- 
in-fring-o,  -ere,  -freg-i,  -fract- 

um,  v.a.  3,  I  break. 
auc-tor,  -toris,  m.,  an  author, 
solut-us,  -a,  -um,  per/,  j^cirt.  of 

solvo  (ch.  xxiii.). 
foed-us,  -6ris,  n.,  a  treaty, 
i'gnomin-ia,  -iae,/.,  disgrace, 
bis,  adv.,  twice. 
sub'jug-o,  v.a.  1,  I  vanquish, 
secundo,  adv.,  a  second  time. 




viti-osus,    -osa,     -osum, 
wicked,  depraved. 

i-gnav-us,  -a,  -um,  adj.,  indol- 
ent, lazy. 

ex-erc-eo,  v.a.  2,  I  employ,  I 

pun-io,  v.a.  4,  I  punish. 

acerb-itas,  -itatis,  /. ,  severity. 

corTig-o,  -ere,  Tex-i,  rectum, 
v.a.  3,  I  correct,  I  improve 
(cum,  rego). 



part'lm,  adv.,  partly  (partior, 

I  divide), 
ded-itio,  -itionis, /.,  surrender. 
Numant-ia,  -iae, /.,  Numantia. 
obsess-us,  per/,  part,  of  obsideo 

(ch.  xvii. ). 
confic-io,  -ere,  'fec-i,  *fect-um, 

v.a.  3, 1  finish,  I  kill,  wear  out. 
sol-um,  -i,  n.,  the  land, 
e'vert-o,  -ere,  'vert-i,  vers-um, 

v.a.   3,   I  thrust  out,   I  de- 
stroy, I  overthrow, 
provinc-ia,  -iae,/.,  a  province. 
Attal-us,  -i,  m.,  Attains. 
Eumen-es,  -is,  m.,  Eumenes. 
mcrtu-us,  per/,  part,  of  niorior 

(ch.  XXV.). 
lier-es,    -edis,    m,    and  f,    an 

testa-mentum,    -menti,    n.,    a 



Nasic-a,  -ae,  m.,  Xasica. 
Calpurn-ius,  -ii,7n.,Calpurnius, 
Besti-a,  -ae,  m.,  Bestia. 
Jugurtti-a,  -ae,  m.,  Jugurtha. 
illat-us,     from      infero      (ch. 

Adherbal,  -alls,  m.,  Adherbal. 
Eiempsal,  -alls,  m.,  Hiempsal. 
Micips-a,  -ae,  m.,  Micipsa. 
cor*ruinp-o,  -ere,  Tup-i,  -rupt- 

um,   v.a.   3,    I   break   up,   I 

pecun-ia,  -iae,/.,  money,  , 

flaglti-osissinius,  -osissinia,  -os-  \ 

issimum,   superl.   adj.,  most 

disgraceful  (tlagitiosus). 
Im'prob-o,  v.a.  1,  I  disapprove, 

I  reiect. 

In-seqn-or,  -i,  -secut-us  sum, 
V.  dep.  3,  I  follow,  I  succeed. 

Spur-ius,  -ii,  m.,  Spurius. 

igndminiose,  ado.,  disgrace- 


Caecil-ius,  -ii,  m.,  Caecilius. 

sever- itas,  -itatis, /.,  severity. 

modera-tio,  -tionis, /.,  modera- 

correct-US,  perf  part,  from 
corrigo  (ch.  Ii. ). 

cru-entus,  -enta,  -entum,  adj., 
cruel,  bloody. 

disciplin-a,  ae, /.,  discipline. 

posit-unis, /row  pono  (ch.  x.). 

success-us,  from  succedo  (ch. 


Mar-ius,  -ii,  m.,  Marius. 

Bocch-us,  -i,  m.,  Bocchus. 

Mauritani-a,  -ae,  /.,  Mauri- 

pariter,  adv.,  equally,  in  like 

all  'quant-US,  -a,  -um,  adj. ,  some, 

termin-us,  -i,  m.,  a  limit,  an 

quaes-tor,  -toris,  m.,  a  quaes- 

Sull-a,  -ae,  m.,  Sulla. 

ante,  adv.  and  prep.,  before. 

triumph-US,  -i,  m. ,  a  triumph. 

act-US, /row  ago  (ch.  ii.). 

curr-us,  -us,  m.,  a  chariot. 

caten-atns,  -ata,  -atum,  adj.^ 
chained,  bound  (catena,  a 



jus-sus,  -sus,  m.,  a  command, 
career,  -6ris,  m.,  a  prison. 
8trangul-o,  v. a.  1,  I  strangle. 


dum,  adv.,  while. 

M  =  Marcus. 

Caepio,  -onis,  m.,  Caepio. 

Cimbr-i,  -orum,  w.,  the  Cimbri. 

Teuton-es,  -um,  m.,  the  Teu- 

Tigurin-i,  -orum,  m.,  the  Tigu- 

Amt»r6n-es,  -um,  m.,  the  Am- 

German-i,  -orum,  m.,  the  Ger- 

juxta,  prep.  gov.  ace,  close  to, 

Rhodan-us,  -i,  m.,  the  Rho- 

Inter "nec-io,  -ionis,  /.,  a  mas- 
sacre, destruction,  slaughter. 

at-ter-o,  -ere,  'trlv-i,  'trit-um, 
v.a.  3,  I  rub  against,  I  de- 
stroy (ad,  tero,  I  rub). 

tim-or,  -oris,  m.,  fear,  alarm. 

grand-is,  -e,  adj.,  great,  large. 

Jugurth-inus,  -Ina,  -mum,  adj., 

de'cern-o,  -ere,  'erev-i,  "cret- 
um,  v.a.  3,  I  decree,  I 

tertio,  adv. ,  for  the  third  time. 

quarto,  adv.,  for  the  fourth 

delat-us, /rom  defero  (ch.  ix.). 

quia,  C071J.,  because. 

Cimbr-icus,  -ica,  -icum,  adj., 

pro*trali-o,  -ere,  "trax-i,  'tract- 

urn,   v.a.  3,   I  draw   out,    I 
prolong,  I  protract. 
col"leg-a,  -ae,  m.,  a  colleague. 


du'cent-i,  -ae,  -a,  num.  adj.,  two 

Teutobod-us,   -i,  m.,  Teutobo- 

quinto,  adv. ,  for  the  fifth  time, 
felic-ius,  adv.  {comp.  of  felici- 

ter),   more  successfully   (ch. 

simul,  adv.,   together,   at  the 

same  time, 
aut,  C071J.,  or  aut.,.aut,  either 

fug-a,  -ae, /.,  flight. 
caes-us,  from  caedo  (ch.  xvii.). 
decret-us,/roOT  decemo  (ch.  Iv. ). 


sex'cent-esimus,  -esima,  -esi- 
mum,  num.  adj.,  the  six 

sexag-esimus,  -esima,  -esimum, 
num.  adj.,  the  sixtieth. 

civ-ilis,  -lie,  adj.,  civil  (civis). 

Mithridat-icus,  -Ica,  -icum,  adj.^ 

sexies,  num.  adv. ,  six  times. 

Mithridat-es,  -is  {ace,  -en),  w., 

gest-urus, /7*om  gero  (ch.  iv.). 

paulisper,  adv.,  for  a  short 
time  (paulus,  very  little). 

soci-alis,  -ale,  adj.,  social,  con- 

intra,  prep.  gov.  ace,  within, 
in  the  interior. 



affect-o,    v.a.    1,    I    strive,    I 


1111c,  adv.,  there. 

in  "gred-ior,  -i,   gress-us  sum,  v. 

dep.  3,  I  walk  into,  I  enter, 
fu  turns,  future  part,   of  sum 

(ch.  viii.). 

Octav-ius,  -ii,  m.,  Octavius. 
Cinn-a,  -ae,  m.,  Cinna. 
Pont-us,  -i,  m.,  Pontus. 
Nicomed-es,  -is  {ace,  -en),  m., 

pat-ior,  -i,  pass-us  sum,  v.  dep. 

3,  I  suffer, 
re'spond-eo,      -ere,      -spond-i, 

spons-um,  v.a.  2,  I  answer, 
fore,  future  inf.   of  sum   (ch. 

Irat-us, /rowi  irascor  (ch.  xv. ). 
Cappadoci-a,   ae,  /.,  Cappado- 

Aiiol)arzan-es,  -is,»i.,  Ariobar- 



In'vad-o,  -ere,    "vas-i,  "vas-um, 

v.a.  3,  I  go  against,  I  attack. 
PapMagon-ia,  -iae,  /.,  Paphla- 

pell-o,  -ere,  pepul-I,   puls-um, 

v.a.  3,  I  drive. 
Pylaemen-es,    -is,    m.,    Pylae- 

Ephes-us,  -i,  m.,  Ephesus. 
nter-ae,  -arum,/.  pL,  a  letter, 
ubi'cunque,  adv.,  wherever. 
Archela-us,  -i,  m..  Archelaus. 

cognit-us,  from  cognosce  (ch. 

lec-tus,  -ta,  -turn  ip^rf  part,  of 

lego,   I  choose),   chosen,  se- 
quin'decim,  num.  adj.  indecl., 

ex'stinct-us,    from    exstingtio 

(ch.  XXXV.). 
tri'd-uum,  -ui,  n.,  three  days 

(tres,  dies), 
nud-us,  -a,  -um,  adj.,  naked. 
pal-US,  -tidis, /.,  a  marsh. 
lat-eo  {no  supine),  v.n  2,  I  lie 



corioqu-ium,  -ii,  n.,  a  confer- 
ence (cum,  loquor,  I  speak). 

terg-um,  -i,  n. ,  a  back. 

pericul-um,  -i,  n.,  danger. 

re-par-o,  v.a.  1,  I  get  again  I 

in 'gress-us,  from  ingredior 
(ch.  Iviii. ). 

pro-scrib-o,  -ere,  *scrips-i, 
"script-um,  v.a.  3,  I  pro- 
scribe, I  outlaw. 

com"pell-o,  -ere,  "pul-i,  -puls- 
um,  v.a.  3,  I  drive  together, 
I  compel. 


univers-us,  -a,  -um,  adj.,  the 

Graec-ia,  -iae,/,  Greece. 

5r-o,  v.a.  1,  1  pray. 

sub-ven-io,  -ire,  "ven-i,  -vent- 
urn,  v.n.  4,  I  come  to  lielp. 

Norban-us,  -i,  m.,  Norbanus. 

longe.  adv.,  far. 



Capu-a,  -ae,  /. ,  Capua, 
coii'vert-o,  -ere,  "vert-i,   'vers- 

um,   v.a.   and  n.   3,   I   turn 

sangu-is,  -mis,  m.,  blood, 
mut-o,  v.a.  1,  I  change. 
Carb-o,  -onis,  m.,  Carbo. 
per-sequ-or,  -i,   -secut-us  sum, 

V.  dep.  3,   I  follow   after,   I 



Pompei-us,  -i,  m.,  Pompey. 
adolesc-ens,     -entis,     com.,    a 

Industri-a,    -ae,   /.,    diligence, 

prae-flc-io,  -ere,  "fec-i,  'fect-um, 

v.a.  3,  I  place  over, 
trans -gred-ior,       i,     'gress-us 

sum,  v.dep.  3,  I  cross  over. 
Domit-ius,  -ii,  m.,  Domitius. 
Marl-anus,  -ana,  -anum,  adj.  of 

Marius,  Marian. 
Hiarb-as,  -ae,  m.,  Hiarbas. 
funest-issimus,     -issima,     -issi- 

mum,  superl.  adj,,  most  de- 
structive (funestus). 
Itali-cus,      -ca,      -cum,     adj.^ 

trah-o,  -ere,  trax-i,   tract-um. 

v.a.  3,  I  draw,  I  protract. 


nunp-o,   -ere,   rup-i,  rupt-um, 

v.a.  3,  I  break, 
rursus,  adv.,  back,  again, 
fortun-a,  -ae, /.,  fortune. 
Cott-a,  -ae,  m. ,  Ootta. 
Clialced-on,  -uuis,/.,Chalcedon, 
c5g:-o,    -ere,    coeg-i,   coact-um. 

v.a.  3,  I  drive  (cum,  ago). 

Cyzic-us,  -i, /.,  Cyzicus. 

trans -tul-isset,  fro7n  transfero 
(ch.  xxxi.). 

obsid-io,  -ionis, /.,  a  siege. 

com-mor-or,  v.  dep.,  1,  I  lin- 

con  -sum-o,  -ere,  'sumps-i, 
•sumpt-um,  v.a.  3,  I  con- 
sume, I  waste. 

Byzant-ium,  -ii,  n.,  Byzantium. 

nunc,  adv.,  now. 

Constantinopol-is,  -is,  /.,  Con- 

Lucull-us,  -i,  m.,  Lucullus. 

op*prim-o, -ere,  press-i,  press- 
um,  v.a.  3,  I  overpower. 

hiem-s,  -is,/.,  winter. 

aest-as,  -atis, /.,  summer. 


pirat-a,  -ae,  m.,  a  pirate, 
infest-o,    v.a.   1,    I   trouble,    I 

naviga-tio,  -tionis,  /.,  naviga- 
tut-us,  -a,  -um,  adj.,  safe, 
pauc-us,   -a,  -um,  adj.,  small; 

pL,  few. 
felic-itas,  -itatis, /.,  success, 
celer-itas,  -itatis,  /. ,  quickness. 
Tigran-es,  -is,  m.,  Tigranes. 
suscept-us,       from       suscipio 

(ch.  vi.). 
Armeni-a,  -ae,/.,  Armenia, 
min-or,   -us,  comp.   adj.,   less, 

lesser  (parvus). 
di'rip-io, -ere,  'ripu-i,  "rept-um, 

v.a.  3,  I  tear  in  pieces,  I  lay 

quadraginta,  nww.  adj.  indecl.f 




centurl-o,  -5ni8,  m.,  a  centur- 

com-es,  -Itis,  com.,  a  compan- 

multo,  adv.,  much. 

saev-io,  v.n.  4,  I  am  fierce, 

Phamac-es,  -is,  m.,  Pharnaces. 

mor-s,  -tis,  /. ,  death. 

coact-us,  from  cogo  (ch.  Ixiii.). 

haur-io,  -ire,  haus-i,  haust-um, 
v.a.  4,  I  swallow. 

autem,  conj.,  but,  moreover. 

Bospor-us,  -i,  m.,  the  Bosphor- 

sediti-o,  -onis, /.,  sedition. 


Cicer-o,  -onis,  m.  Cicero. 

ora-tor,  -toris,  m.,  an  orator. 

Anton-ius,  -ii,  m.,  Antony. 

Serg-ius,  -ii,  m.,  Sergius. 

Catilin-a,  -ae,  m.,  Catiline. 

gen-US,  -6ris,  n.,  a  family. 

ingen-ium,  -ii,  n.,  ability,  cha- 
racter, disposition. 

prav-us,  -a,  -um,  adj.,  bad, 

delend-us,  -a,  -um,  from  deleo 
(ch.  xxii.). 

con'jur-o,  v.a.  1,  I  conspire. 

aud-ax,  -acis,  adj.,  bold,  dar- 

de  prehend-o,  -ere,  'prehend-i, 
prehens-um,  v.a.  3,  I  seize 
upon,  I  apprehend. 

LXV  I. 

Jul-ius,  -ii,  -m.,  Julius. 
Caes-ar,  -aris,  m.,  Caesar. 
Bibiil  us,  -i,  m.,  Bibulus. 
GaU-ia,  -iae.    ..  Gaul. 

Illyrl-cum,  -ci,  n.,  lllyricum. 

prime,  adv. ,  at  first. 
Helvet-ii,  -iorum,  m.,  the  Hel- 
Sequan-i,      -orum,      m.,      the 

ocean-US,  -i,  m.,  the  ocean. 
Britanni-cus,   -ca,   -cum,   adj.^ 

domo,  -are,  -ui,  -Itum,  v.a.  1, 

I  vanquish, 
novem,  mim,.  adj.  indecl.,  nine. 
Rhen-us,  -i,  m.,  the  Rhine, 
circui-tus,  -tus,  m.,  a  circuit, 
pat-eo,   -ere,   -ui,   v.n.  2,  I  am 

open,  I  lie  open, 
tricies,      num.      adv.,      thirty 

cent-eni,    -enae,    -ena,    d'l.^trih. 

num.  adj.  pi.,  a  hundred, 
pas-sus,  -sus,  m.,  a  step,  a  pace. 
Britann-i,      -orum,      vi.,      the 

intul-i /rom  infero  (ch.  xxxvii). 
ne...quidem,  not  even. 
obs-es,    -idis,    m.     and   f,    a 

accept-us    from    accipio    (ch. 

stlpendi-arius,    -aria,     -arium, 

adj.,  tributary, 
tribu-tum,  -ti,  n.,  a  tribute, 
ann-uum,    -ui,     n.,    a    yearly 

sestert-ius,  -i,  m.,  a  sesterce, 
quadringenties,  adv.,  four  hun- 
dred times, 
im "man-is,  -e,  adj.,  enormous, 

tot,  num.  adj.  wdecl.,  so  many, 
succes-sus,  -sus,  m. ,  a  success. 
ter,  num.  adv.    three  times. 



Arvem-i,      -onim,      w.,      the 

semel,  adv.,  once, 
praes-ens,  -entis,  adj.,  present. 
Gennan-ia,  -iae,  /. ,  Germany. 
Titur-ius,  -ii,  m.,  Titurius. 
Auruncide-ius,  -ii,  nu,  Aurun- 

insid-iae,    -iarum,  /.    pi.,    an 

ambush,  a  plot. 


ex*secr-or,  v.  dep.  1,  I  curse, 
I  execrate. 

lacrlma-bilis,  -bile,  adj.,  la- 

praeter, prep.  gov.  ace, besides. 

calamit-as,  -atis,  /.,  a  mis- 
fortune, disaster. 

ac'cid-o,  -ere,  "cid-i,  v.n.  3,1 
happen,  befall. 

posc-o,  -ere,  p6posc-i,  v. a.  3, 
I  demand. 

duM-us,  -a,  -um,  adj.,  doubtful. 

contra'dic-o,  -ere,  dix-i,  'dict- 
um, v.  a.  3,  I  speak  against, 
I  oppose. 

Marcell-us,  -i,  m.,  Marcellus. 

Cat-o,  -onis,  m.,  Cato. 

con-greg-o,  v.  a.  1,  I  assemble. 

adversum,  prep.  gov.  ace, 

nobil-itas,  -itatis, /.,  nobility. 

Macedon-ia, -iae,/.,  Macedonia. 


-ua,      -uum, 

vac-uus,      -ua,      -uum,      adj. 

val-idus,     -ida,     -Idum,     adj. 


for-tis,  -te,  adj.,  strong. 

Afran-ius,  -ii,  m.,  Afranius. 

Petre-ius,  -ii,  m.,  Petreius 

inter 'ven-io,  -ire,  'ven-i,  -vent- 
urn,  v.n.  4,  I  come  between,  I 
intervene,  I  come  on. 

nee,  adv.,  not,  (ch.  xix.) 

sc-io,  -ire,  sciv-i  and  sci-i,  scit- 
um,  v.a.  4,  I  know  (how). 

Thessal-ia,  -iae,/.,  Thessalia. 

Phaxsal-ia,  iae,/.,  Pharsalia. 

pro*duc-o,  -ere,  'dux-i,  'duct- 
um,  v.a.  3,  I  lead  forward. 


nunquam,  adv.,  never. 

major,  -oris,  comp.  adj.,  greater 

melior,  oris,  comp.  adj.,  better 

con' ven-io,  -ire,  'veu-i,  'vent- 
um,  v.71.  4,  I  come  together, 
I  agree  upon. 

facile,  adv.,  easily. 

sub'act-urus  from  subigo  (ch. 

barbar-us,  -i,  n.,  a  barbarian. 

con'ten-tio,  -tionis, /.,  earnest- 

postrem-us,  -a,  -um,  superL, 
adj.,  the  last  (post). 

di'rept-us  from  diripio  (ch. 

Alexandri-a,  -ae,  /.,  Alexan- 

Aegypt-us,  -i,/.,  Egypt.  ^ 

tut-or,  -oris,  w.,  a  guardian. 

juven-llis,  -lie,  adj.,  youthful. 

conspic-io,  -ere,  'spex-i,  'spect- 
um,  v.a.  3,  I  behold,  I  see. 

lacriin-a,  -ae,  /. ,  a  tear. 



in'tu-eor,  -eri,  -tuit-us  sum,  v. 
dep.  2,  I  gaze  upon,  I  behold, 
quondam,  adv.,  formei-ly. 


Ptolemae-us,  -i,  m.,  Ptolemy. 
Nil-US,  -i,  m.,  the  Nile. 
lor-ica,  -icae,  / ,  a  cuirass, 
pot-ior,   -iri,   potit-us  sum,   v. 

dep.  4,  I  take  possession  of. 
Cleopatr-a,  ae, /.,  Cleopatra, 
sor-or,  -oris,  /, ,  a  sister. 
co'eg-it from  cogo  (ch.  Ixiii.). 
corp-us,  -6ris,  n.,  a  body. 


Sex-tus,  -ti,  m.,  Sextus. 
Mund-a,  -ae, /,  Munda. 
denique,  adv.,  last. 
occis-us/?-om  occido  (ch.  vii.). 


com*pon-o,  -ere,  'pos-ui,  -posit- 

um,  v.a.  3,  I  put  together, 

I  finish. 
Insolentius,   comp.   adv.,  more 

or  too  arrogantly  (insolenter) . 
liber-tas,  -tatis, /.,  liberty, 
volun-tas,  -tatis,/.,  will. 
prae"st-o,    -are,    'stit-i,    'stit- 

um  and  'stat-um,  v.a.   1,  I 

give,  I  ofi'er,  I  confer, 
antea,  adv.,  formerly,  before, 
as'surg-o,  -ere,  -suiTex-i,  -sur- 

rect-um,   v.n.    3,   I   rise   up 

(ad,  surgo). 
reg-ius,  -ia,  -ium,  adj.,  regal, 
tyxannic-us,     -a,     -um,     adj., 

amplius,  comp.  adv.,  more. 

coTiJurat-us,  -i,  m.,  a  con- 

Cass-ius,  -ii,  m.,  Cassius. 

Servil-ius,  -ii,  m.,  Servilius. 

Casc-a,  -ae,  m.,  Casca. 

cur-ia,  -iae,  /.,  the  Curia  or 

con*f6d-io,  -ere,  'fod-l,  -foss- 
um,  v.a.  3,  I  pierce  through. 


Interfect-us /roTn  interficio  (ch. 

per"cus-sor,  -soris,  m.,  a  striker, 

anassa8sin(percutio,I  strike), 
fav-eo,    -ere,    ^v-i,     faut-um, 

v.n.     2,     I    favour,    I     am 

con-or,  V.  dep.  1,  I  attempt. 
turb-o,   v.a.    1,    I    throw  into 

judic-o,   v.a.   1,    I   consider,   I 

Pans-a,  -ae,  m.,  Pansa. 
Hirt-ius,  -ii,  m.,  Hirtius. 
Octavlan-us,  -i,  ?;?.,  Octavianus. 
juss-erat/rom  jubeo  (ch.  xxiv.). 
Augnst-us,  -i,  m.,  Augustus. 
potit-us  jrom  potior  (ch.  Ixx.). 
e'ven-io,  -ire,  -ven-i,  -vent-um, 

r.7i.  4,  I  happen.  I  turn  out. 
par-eo,  v.n.  2,  I  obey. 


con-fug-io,  -ere,   "fug-i,  -fugit- 

um,  v.n.  3,  I  flee. 
Lepid-as,  -i,  m.,  Lepidus. 
oper-a,  -ae, /.,  exertion,  aid. 
ad"opt-o,  v.a.  1,  I  adopt  (ad, 

opto.  I  select). 



extorqu-eo,  -ere,  'tors-i,  "tort- 
urn,  v.a.  2,  I  obtain  by  force. 


inter'fec-tor,     -toris,     wr.,     a 

mov-eo,   -ere,   mov-i,  mot-um, 

v.a.  2,  I  stir  up,  I  excite. 
Ori-ens,    -entis,    ?n.,    the    east 

(yVom  orior,  ch.  iii.). 
re  'mans-erat    from    remaneo, 

(ch.  xxxi. ). 
Philipp-i,      -orum,      m.      pl.j 

divis-us/rom  divido  (ch.  xviii.). 


interim,  adv.,  meanwhile, 
conflu-o,  -ere,  -flux-i,  -flux-um, 

v.n.  3,  I  flock  together. 
bell-o,  v.n.  1,  I  carry  on  war. 
rup-it /ro7?i  rumpo  (ch.  Ixiii. ). 
Pers-ae,  -arum,  m. ,  the  Persians 
pestilent-ia,    -iae,  /.,   disease, 

in-st-o,   -are,    'stit-i,    -stit-um, 

v.n.  1,  I  press  hard  upon. 
Parth-i,       -orum,       m.,       the 

Parthians . 
regin-a,  -ae,/.,  a  queen. 


cupid-Itas,  -Itatis,  /.,  a  desire, 

mulle-bris,  -bre,  acZ;., womanish 
opt-o,  v.a.  1,  I  desire. 
iUustr-is,  -e,  adj.,  famous. 
Act-ium,  -ii,  n.,  Actium, 
desper-o,  v.a.  1,  I  despair  of. 
interem-it  from  interimo  (ch. 

asp-is,    -idis,  /.,    a   viper,    an 

adject-us/row  adjicio  (ch.  v.). 
prae-pon-o,  -ere,  -pos-ui,  -posit- 

um,  v.a.  3,  I  place  over. 
Gall-us,  -i,  n.,  Gallus. 
jud-ex,    -icis,   m.,   a   judge,    a 

init-ixim,  -ii,  n. ,  a  beginning, 
principat-us,  -us,  m.,  absolute 

ob-eo,    ire,    -iv-i,    'i-i,    -it-urn, 

v.n.  irreg.,  I  die. 
Atell-a,  -ae, /.,  Atella. 
camp-us,  -i,  m.,  a  plain. 
Mart-ius,    -ia,    -ium,    adj.,    of 

sepult-us    from     sepelio     (cK 




(Tlie  numerals  refer  to  the  Chapters.) 

a,  ab,  1. 

adventus,  38. 

AUia,  19. 

al)sens,  22. 

adversum,  67. 

Alpes,  38. 

abstineo,  37. 

adversus,  20,  25. 

alter,  12. 

absum,  5. 

aedifico,  7. 

ambo,  40. 

ac,  4 

aeger,  36. 

Ambrones,  55. 

accedo,  15. 

Aegyptus,  69. 
Aemilius,  40. 

amicitia,  44. 

acceptus,  66. 

amicus,  10. 

accido,  67. 

aequus,  27. 

amicus  (adj.),  37. 

accipio,  7. 

aestas,  63. 

amitto,  .31. 

acerbitas,  51. 

aetas,  16. 

amnis,  39. 

Achaia,  46. 

Afer,  30. 

amplio,  5. 

acies,  18. 

affecto,  57. 

amplius,  72. 

Acilius,  46. 

afficio,  10. 

ancilla,  8. 

Actium,  77. 

Afranius,  68. 

Ancus,  6. 

actus,  54. 

Africa,  31. 

angustia,  23. 

ad,  2. 

Africanus,  47. 

Anio,  20. 

adduce,  38. 

ager,  9. 

aimulus,  41. 

adeo,  43. 

aggredior,  37. 

amius,  1. 

Adherbal,  52. 

ago,  2. 

annuum,  66. 

adhuc,  8. 

ala,  21. 

ante,  54. 

adimo,  11. 

Albani,  5. 

antea,  72. 

adjectus,  77. 

Albinus,  36. 

Antemnates,  3. 

adjicio,  5. 

Alexandria,  69. 

Aiitiochus,  46. 

adjungo,  8. 

Algidum,  17. 

antiquissimus,  18. 

admiratio,  27. 

aliquantus,  54. 

Antonius,  65. 

admiror,  27. 

aliqniis,  28. 

apparatus,  43. 

admitto,  35. 

aliquot,  24. 

appello,  14. 

adolescens,  62. 

aliter,  40. 

Appius,  23. 

adopto,  74. 

alius,  5. 

apud,  19. 



Apulia,  22. 
aqua,  23. 
Archelaus,  59. 
Ardea,  10. 
ardeo,  5. 
argentum,  36. 
Argos,  29. 
Ariminum,  38. 
Ariobarzanes,  58. 
anna,  27. 
Armenia,  64. 
anno,  21. 
aro,  17. 
Aruns,  14. 
Arvemi,  66. 
ascendo,  36. 
Asia,  47. 
Asinus,  30. 
aspis,  77. 
assurgo,  72. 
at,  37. 
Atella,  77. 
Atilius,  31. 
Attalus,  51. 
attero,  55. 
atque,  2. 
auctor,  50. 
audax,  65. 
audio,  44. 
Augustus,  73. 
Aulus,  36. 
aureus,  20. 
aunim,  19. 
Auninculeius,  66. 
aut,  56. 
autem,  64. 
auxilium,  15. 
Aventinus,  6. 
averto,  28. 
avus,  49. 

barbarus,  69. 

bello,  76. 
bellum,  3. 
bene,  46. 
Bestia,  52. 
bibo,  47. 
Bibulus,  66. 
bis,  50. 
Bithynia,  47. 
Bocchus,  53. 
Bosponis,     64. 
Britanni,  66. 
Britannicus,  66. 
Bruttii,  26. 
Brutus,  11. 
Byzantium,  63. 

C,  20. 

Caecilius,  53. 
caedo,  17. 
Caenninensis,  3. 
Caepio,  55. 
caesus,  56. 
Caius,  20. 
calamitas,  67. 
calidus,  40. 
Calpumius,  52. 
Camillus,  18. 
Campania,  22. 
campus,  77. 
Cannae,  40. 
capio,  15. 
Capitolium,  7. 
Cappadocia,  58. 
captivus,  8,  26. 
captus,  45. 
Capua,  61. 
caput,  22. 
Carbo,  61. 
career,  54. 
Carthaginiensis,  30, 
Carthago,  41. 
Casca,  72. 

Cassius,  72. 
castrum,  24. 
casus,  42. 
Catilina,  65. 
catena,  32. 
catenatus,  54. 
Catulus,  36. 
Caudinus,  23. 
causa,  11. 
celeritas,  64. 
censor,  23. 
census,  8. 
centeni,  66. 
centum,  2. 
centurio,  64. 
certamen,  20. 
cesso,  17. 
ceter,  39. 
Chalcedon,  63. 
Cicero,  65. 
Cimbri,  55. 
Cimbricus,  55. 
Cincinnatus,  17. 
Cineas,  27. 
cingo,  3. 
Cinna,  58. 
circa,  47. 
circuitus,  66. 
circum,  8. 
circumduco,  45, 
circus,  7. 
civis,  9. 
civitas,  2. 
clarus,  49. 
classis,  36. 
Claudius,  23. 
claudo,  11. 
cloaca,  7. 
Cnaeus,  30. 
Coelius,  5. 
coelum,  25. 
coepi,  12. 



coerceo,  12. 
cognitus,  69. 
cognomen,  20. 
cognosce,  27. 
cogo,  63. 
Collatinus,  10. 
collega,  55. 
colligo,  13. 
colloquium,  60. 
collum,  20. 
colo,  17. 
comes,  64. 
commissus,  39. 
committo,  21. 
commoror,  63. 
commoveo,  3. 
communis,  14. 
compareo,  3. 
compello,  60. 
compleo,  3. 
complexus,  35. 
compono,  72. 
concido,  16. 
concito,  11. 
concludo,  23. 
conditio,  27. 
condo,  2. 
conficio,  51. 
confligo,  39. 
confluo,  76. 
confodio,  72. 
confugio,  74. 
congrego,  67. 
conjicio,  .32. 
conjungo,  44. 
conjuratus,  72. 
conjuro,  65. 
Conor,  73. 
consido,  20. 
consilium,  2. 
conspectus,  10. 
conspicio,  69. 

Constantinopolis,  63 
constituo,  1. 
consuetudo,  4. 
consul,  12. 
consularis,  17. 
consulatus,  29. 
consumo,  63. 
contemno,  27. 
contendo,  15. 
contentio,  69. 
contingo,  25. 
contra,  6. 
contradico,  67. 
converto,  61. 
convenio,  69. 
copia,  33. 
Corioli,  15, 
Cornelius,  29. 
corpus,  70. 
corrigo,  51. 
corrumpo,  52. 
Corvinus,  21. 
corvus,  21. 
Cotta,  63. 
credo,  3.     creo,  4. 
cruentus,  53. 
Crustumini,  3. 
cum,  1. 
cupiditas,  77. 
curia,  72. 
Curius,  29. 
currus,  54. 
Cursor,  22. 
cursus,  28. 
Cyzicus,  63. 

damno,  18. 
damnum,  41. 
datus,  46. 
de,  10. 
decedo,  4. 

decern,  4. 
Decemviri,  17. 
decemo,  55. 
decimus,  5. 
decipio,  30. 
decretus,  56. 
dedecus,  23. 
deditio,  51. 
deduce,  33. 
defendo,  19. 
defensor,  14. 
defero,  9. 
deinde,  3. 
delatus,  55. 
delendus,  65. 
deleo,  22. 
demerge,  36. 
denique,  71. 
Dentatus,  29. 
denuntie,  37. 
depopulor,  26. 
deprecatio,  15. 
deprehendo,  65. 
describe,  4. 
desere,  44. 
desino,  34. 
despere,  77. 
deterge,  17. 
detraho,  41. 
deus,  3. 
dico,  21. 
dictator,  14. 
dicta  tura,  14. 
dies,  3. 
differo,  39. 
difficilius,  28. 
diffugie,  39. 
dignitas,  13. 
dimice,  6. 
dimitto,  24. 
direptus,  69. 
diripio,  64. 

104            EUTROPII  HISTORIA  ROMAN  A. 

diruo,  49. 

Eumenes,  51. 

filius,  1. 

disciplina,  53. 

evado,  45. 

finis,  25. 

ditissimus,  18. 

evenio,  73. 

finitimus,  2. 

diu,  18. 

everto,  51. 

fio,  23. 

diutumitas,  12. 

ex,  2. 

flagitiossimus,  52. 

divide,  18. 

excidium,  1. 

Flamininus,  46. 

divinus,  43. 

excludo,  11. 

Flaminius,  39. 

divisus,  75. 

exerceo,  51. 

fleo,  44. 

do,  19. 

exercitus,  11. 

fletus,  15. 

dominus,  25. 

exigo,  14, 

flumen,  19. 

Domitius,  62. 

exiguus,  1. 

fluvius,  20. 

domo,  66. 

existimo,  43. 

foedus,  50. 

domus,  5. 

exordium,  1. 

fore,  58. 

dubius,  67. 

expavesco,  25. 

fortis,  68. 

ducenti,  56. 

expello,  12. 

fortuna,  63. 

duco,  8. 

explorator,  24. 

fossa,  8. 

Duilius,  30. 

exsecror,  67. 

f rater,  1. 

dum,  55. 

exstinctus,  59. 

fraus,  30. 

duo,  5. 

exstinguo,  35. 

fuga,  56. 

duodecim,  36. 

exsulo,  19. 

fugio,  11. 

duodecimus,  5. 

extorqueo,  74. 

fugo,  20. 

duplico,  7. 

fulmen,  5. 

durus,  32. 

Fabius,  16. 

fundo,  47. 

dux,  15. 

Fabricius,  27. 

funestissimub,  62 

facile,  69. 

farcula,  23. 

e,  2. 

facio,  7. 

Furius,  21. 

edo,  1. 

factus,  43. 

educo,  45. 

Falisci,  18. 

Gabii,  10 

ejicio,  15. 

fames,  19. 

galea,  21. 

elephantus,  25. 

familia,  16. 

Gallia,  66. 

eligo,  2. 

faveo,  73. 

Gallus,  19,  77. 

enim,  13. 

favor,  22. 

gener,  9. 

Ephesus,  59. 

fecerat,  44. 

gens,  13. 

Epirus,  24. 

felicissime,  22. 

genus,  65. 
Germani,  55. 

eques,  14. 

felicitas,  64. 

equitatus,  48. 

felicius,  56. 

Germania,  66. 

ergo,  13. 

fere,  2. 

gero,  4. 

erro,  33. 

fero,  24. 

gesturus,  67. 

Esquilinua,  S. 

ferrum,  26. 

gigno,  8. 

esse,  8. 

Fidenatea,  3. 

Glabrius,  46. 

et,  1. 

fides,  31. 

gloria,  45. 

etiain,  7. 

filia,  9. 

Gracchus,,  38. 



Graecia,  61. 

grandis,  55. 
gratior,  30. 
gravis,  37. 

habeo,  1. 
habeor,  48. 
Hamilcar,  31. 
Hannibal,  37. 
Hasdrubal,  38. 
haurio,  64. 
i         Helvetii,  66. 
heres,  51. 
Hiarbas.  62. 
hie,  2. 

Hiempsal,  52. 
hiems,  63. 
hinc,  12. 
Hirtius,  73. 
Hispania,  37. 
homo,  16. 
honestas,  28. 
honestus,  35. 
honor,  22. 
honorifice,  26. 
Hostilius,  5 
hostis,  17. 

ibi,  48. 
ibidem,  43. 
ico,  5. 
idem,  7. 
igitur,  12. 
ignavus,  51. 
ignis,  26. 
ignobilis,  50. 
ignominia,  50. 
ignominiose,  52. 
illatus,  52. 
ille,  28. 
illic,  58. 
illustris,  77 

Illyricum,  66. 
immanis,  66. 
impatiens,  40. 
impatientia,  40. 
imperium,  1. 
impero,  3. 
impetus,  39. 
impono,  20. 
improbo,  52. 

inchoo,  7. 
incognitus,  8. 
inde,  39. 
indico,  24. 
indictus,  38. 
induco,  23. 
industria,  62. 
infamis,  50. 
infero,  37. 
infestus,  64. 
infinitus,  4. 
infringo,  50. 
ingenium,  65. 
ingens,  14. 
ingredior,  58. 
ingressus,  60, 
initium,  77. 
injuria,  3. 
insequor,  52. 
insidiae,  66. 
insolens,  12. 
insolentius,  72. 
instituo,  7. 
insto,  76. 
instruo,  45. 
insum,  43. 
integer,  42. 
inter,  22. 
interea,  27. 
interemit,  77. 
interfector,  75. 
interfectus,  73. 

interficio,  21. 
interim,  76. 
interim©,  39. 
Lnterjicio,  24. 
intemecio,  55. 
intervenio,  68. 
intra,  57. 
intro,  7. 
intueor,  69. 
intuli,  66. 
invado,  59. 
invenio,  17. 
inventus,  39. 
invicem,  14. 
invictus,  30. 
invidia,  18. 
invito,  2. 
invius,  38. 
ipse,  2, 
irascor,  15. 
iratus,  58. 
is,  1 
ita,  19. 
Italia,  18. 
Italicus,  62. 
itaque,  16. 
iteriim,  50. 

jaceo,  25, 
jam,  22. 
Janiculum,  6. 
jubeo,  24. 
judex,  77. 
judico,  73. 
jugenim,  17. 
jugum,  23. 
Jugurtha,  52. 
Jugurthinus,  oo. 
Julius,  66. 
jungo,  26. 
junior,  9. 
Junius.  12. 



Jupiter,  10. 
jusserat,  73. 
jussus,  54. 
juvenilis,  69. 
juvenis,  10. 
juxta,  55. 

Kaeso,  16. 

L,  17. 
laboro,  19. 
Lacedaemonii,  32. 
lacrima,  69. 
lacrimabilis,  67. 
Laevinus,  24. 
lateo,  59. 
Latini,  6. 
latro,  4. 
lectus,  59. 
legatus,  15. 
legio,  21. 
Lentulus,  29. 
Lepidus,  74. 
lex,  4. 
liberi,  11. 
libero,  17. 
libertas,  72. 
Libumus,  30. 
Libyssa,  47. 
Lilybaeum,  36. 
literae,  59. 
locus,  13. 
longe,  61. 
longius,  12. 
lorica,  70. 
Lucani,  26. 
Lucius,  10. 
Lucretia,  12. 
Lucullus,  63. 
lugeo,  14. 
Lutatius,  36. 

M,  55. 
M',  46. 

Macedonia,  67. 
Macedonicus,  46. 
magis,  42. 
magister,  14. 
Magnesia,  47. 
major,  69. 
male,  18. 
malum,  34. 
malus,  12. 
Mancinus,  50. 
mando,  37. 
maneo,  13. 
Manius,  29. 
Manlius,  20, 
manus,  17. 
Marcellus,  67. 
Marcius,  6. 
Marcus,  21. 
mare,  30. 
Marianus,  62. 
maritus,  10. 
Marius,  53. 
Mars,  1. 
Martins,  77. 
Masinissa,  44. 
mater,  15. 
matrona,  14. 
Mauritania,  53. 
Maximus,  22. 
medicus,  28. 
medius,  22. 
melior,  69. 
memoria,  7. 
mensis,  4. 
mereo,  49. 
mergo,  30. 
meritum,  21. 
Metellus,  33. 
metus,  42. 

Micipsa,  52. 
migro,  13. 
miles,  21. 
militaris,  19. 
milito,  48. 
millia,  9. 
milliarium,  5. 
minor,  64. 
minus,  4. 
missus,  28. 
Mithridates,  57. 
Mithridaticus,  57. 
mitto,  18. 
moderatio,  53. 
modius,  41. 
moneo,  40. 
mons,  5. 
morbus,  4. 
morior,  25. 
mors,  64. 
mortuus,  51. 
mos,  4. 
moveo,  75. 
mox,  11. 
muliebris,  77. 
multitude,  2. 
multo,  64. 
multus,  13. 
Munda,  71. 
mums,  7. 
muto,  61. 

nam,  4. 

nascor,  1. 

Nasica,  52. 

natio,  2. 

natus,  43. 

navalis,  47. 

navigatio,  64. 

navis,  30. 

ne,  12. 

ne ,  .  .  quidem,  66. 



nee,  19,  68. 
necessitas,  23. 
nego,  35. 
nepos,  6. 
neque,  19. 
Xicomedes,  58. 
Nicomedienses,  47. 
nihU,  34. 
Nilus,  70. 
nisi,  15. 
nobilis,  8. 
nobilissimus,  10. 
nobilitas,  67. 
noctumus,  46. 
nolo,  32. 
nomen,  2. 
nomino,  2. 
non,  2. 

nonagesimus,  1. 
nonus,  14. 
Norbanus,  61. 
noster,  7. 
novem,  66. 
novus,  14. 
nox,  25. 
nudus,  59. 
nuUus,  4. 
Numa,  4. 
Numantia,  51. 
Numantini,  50. 
numen,  43. 
numenis,  7. 
Numidae,  33. 
Numidia,  44. 
nunc,  63. 
nunquam,  69. 

ob,  18. 
obeo,  77. 
obsequor,  14. 
obses,  66. 
obsideo,  17. 

obsidio,  63. 

obtineo,  27. 

occasio,  22. 

occido,  7. 

occisus,  71. 

occupo,  19. 

occurro,  39. 

oceanus,  66. 

Octavianus,  73. 

octavus,  5. 

octingenti,  25. 

octo,  30. 

octodecim,  1. 

octoginta,  9. 

oculus,  21. 

offero,  21. 

onmino,  16. 

omnis,  2. 

opera,  74. 

oppidum,  3. 

opprimo,  63. 

oppugno,  10. 

optimus,  21. 

opto,  77. 

opulentissimus,  50. 

orator,  65. 

orbis,  8. 

ordino,  8. 
I  Oriens,  75. 
j  orior,  3. 
j  omamentum,  49. 
!  oro,  61. 

ostendo,  24. 

Ostia,  6. 

P,  40. 
paene,  45. 
Palatinus,  1. 
palus,  59. 
Pansa,  73. 
Paphlagonia,  59. 
Papirius,  22. 

paratissimus,  48. 
parens,  11. 
pareo,  73. 
pariter,  53. 
paro,  30. 
pars,  27. 
PartM,  76. 
partim,  51. 
partus,  1. 
passus,  66. 
patefacio,  38. 
pateo,  66. 
pater,  10. 
j  patior,  58. 
patria,  15. 
paucus,  64. 
paulisper,  57. 
Paulus,  40. 
pauper,  27. 
pax,  10. 
pecunia,  52. 
pedes,  38. 
pello,  59. 
per,  3. 

percussor,  73. 
perdo,  10. 
pereo,  6. 
pergo,  26. 
periculum,  60. 
peritus,  45. 
permaneo,  7. 
permutatio,  34. 
perpetuus,  20. 
Persae,  76. 
persequor,  61. 
pestilentia,  76. 
peto,  15. 
Petreius,  68. 
Phamea,  48. 
Phamaces,  64. 
Pharsalia,  68. 
Philippi,  75. 



Philippus,  46. 
Picenum,  22. 
pirata,  64. 
placeo,  12. 
plurimum,  30. 
poena,  37. 
Poeni,  35. 
polliceor,  28. 
pompa,  33. 
Pompeius,  62. 
Pompilius,  4. 
pondus,  36. 
pono,  10. 
Pontus,  58. 
populus,  2. 
porta,  11. 
posco,  67. 
positurus,  53. 
possideo,  17. 
possum,  13. 
post,  1. 
postea,  4. 
posterior,  43. 
posterus,  20. 
postquam,  15. 
postremo,  45. 
postremus,  69. 
Postumius,  36. 
potens,  22. 
potestas,  12. 
potior,  70. 
potitus,  73. 
potuerat,  28 
praeda,  18. 
praecipio,  22. 
praecipuus,  27. 
praeficio,  62. 
praelium,  4. 
Praeneste,  26. 
praepono,  77. 
praesens,  66. 
praesto,  72. 

praesum,  48. 
praeter,  67. 
praetextus,  17. 
praetorius,  41. 
prandium,  45. 
pravus,  65. 
pretium,  26. 
primo,  66. 
primum,  18. 
primus,  7. 
principatus,  77. 
Priscus,  7. 
prius,  28. 
pro,  12. 
procedo,  21. 
produoo,  68. 
profectus,  29. 
proficiscor,  16. 
promitto,  28. 
propter,  2. 
proscribo,  60. 
prospere,  46. 
prosum,  4. 
protraho,  55. 
provincia,  51. 
provoco,  20. 
Prusias,  47. 
Ptolemaeus,  70. 
Publicola,  13. 
Publius,  24. 
pudicitia,  14 
puerilis,  16. 
pugna,  14. 
pugno,  22. 
Punicus,  30. 
punio,  51. 
puto,  4. 

Pylaemenes,  59. 
Pyrenaeus,  38. 
Pyrrhus,  24. 

Q.  22. 

quadragesimus,  4, 
quadraginta,  64. 
quadringenti,  36. 
quadringenties,  66, 
quaestor,  54. 
qualis,  45. 
quam,  4. 
quare,  27. 
quarto,  55. 
quartus,  1. 
quasi,  14. 
quattuor,  9. 
quattuordecim,  30. 
que,  4. 
queror,  10. 
qui,  1. 
quia,  55. 
quicunque,  24. 
quidam,  21. 
quiddam,  43. 
quidem,  4.  66. 
quindecim,  59. 
quingentesimus,  40. 
quingenti,  32. 
quini,  3. 

quinquagesimus,  46. 
quinquaginta,  47. 
quinque,  11. 
Quintius,  15. 
quinto,  56. 
quintus,  9. 
Quirinalis,  8. 
quisquam,  13. 
quod,  18. 
quondam,  69. 
quoque,  8. 
quum,  2. 

rapio,  2. 
rebello,  18. 
recedo,  14. 
recessit,  29. 



recipe  re  se,  31. 
recipio,  2. 
reddo,  12. 
redeo,  22. 
redigo,  36. 
redimo,  26. 
reduce,  28. 
regina,  76. 
regius,  72.  regno,  3. 
regnum,  3. 
regredior,  35. 
Regulus,  31. 
relictus,  38. 
relinquo,  11. 
reliquisse,  44. 
reliquus,  33. 
remaneo,  31. 
remanserat,  75. 
removeo,  15. 
Remus,  1. 
renuntio,  14. 
reparo,  60. 
reperio,  22. 
repeto,  47. 
repudio,  15. 
res,  20. 
respondeo,  58. 
restituo,  13. 
retro,  31. 
reverentia,  48. 
revoco,  19. 
rex,  4. 
Rhenus,  66. 
Rhodanus,  55. 
Roma,  2. 
Romanus,  1. 
Romulus,  1. 
rumpo,  63. 
rupit,  76. 
nirsua,  63. 

Sabini,  3. 

sacrum,  4. 

saepe,  15. 

saepius,  31. 

saevio,  64. 

Saguntini,  37. 

Saguntum,  37. 

Samnites,  22. 

sanguis,  61. 

saucio,  41. 

scelus,  9. 

scilicet,  49. 

scio,  68. 

Scipio,  38. 

se,  26. 

secundo,  50. 

secundus,  37- 

secutus,  19. 

sed,  4.  seditio,  64. 

semel,  66. 

semibarbarus,  4. 

Sempronius,  38. 

senator,  2. 

senatus,  23. 

senectus,  2. 

senior,  2. 

Senones,  19. 

sepelio,  25. 

septem,  23. 

Septimus,  3. 

septingentesimus  49 

septuaginta,  31. 

sepultus,  77. 

Sequani,  66. 

sequor,  17. 

Sergius,  05. 

sermo,  43. 

Servilius,  72. 

servio,  35. 
j  Servius,  8. 
j  sestertixun,  66. 
{  severitas,  53. 

sex,  33. 

sexagesimus,  57. 
sexaginta,  31. 
sexcentesimus,  57. 
sexies,  57. 
sextus,  5. 
Sextus,  71. 
si,  12. 
sic,  27. 
Sicilia,  29. 
signum,  19. 
simul,  56. 
sine,  26. 
singularis,  20. 
Sipylus,  47. 
socer,  14. 
socialis,  57. 
socius,  37. 
sol,  28. 
sollicito,  27. 
solum,  51. 
solus,  16. 
solutus,  50. 
solvo,  23. 
soror,  70. 
spectaculum,  2, 
spolium,  44. 
spondeo,  28. 
Spurius,  52. 
statim,  13. 
stemo,  23. 
stipendiarius,  66. 
strangulo,  54. 
suadeo,  35. 
sub,  9. 

subactunis,  69. 
subigo,  8. 
subito,  3. 
subitus,  3. 
subjugo,  50. 
sublatus,  13. 
subvenio,  61. 



succedo,  5. 
successus,  53,  66. 
sudor,  17. 
Suessa,  10 
sufficio,  11. 
sui,  10. 
Sulla,  54. 
Sulpicius,  20. 
sum,  8. 
summus,  17. 
superbus,  9. 
superior,  36. 
supero,  5. 
supersum,  16. 
supplicium,  35. 
susceptus,  64. 
suscipio,  6. 
suus,  2. 
Syphax,  44. 
Syriacus,  46. 

talis,  25. 
tamen,  8. 
tandem,  43. 
tantum,  32. 
tantus,  16. 
Tarentini,  24. 
Tarentum,  29. 
Tarquinius,  7. 
tempestas,  3. 
templum,  4. 
tempus,  23. 
teneo,  27.    ter,  66. 
Terentius,  40. 
tergum,  60. 
terminus,  54. 
terra,  8. 
terror,  26. 
tertio,  55. 
tertius,  4. 
testamentum,  51. 

Teutobodus,  56. 
Teutones,  55. 
Thessalia,  68. 
Tiberius,  38. 
Tigranes,  64. 
Tigurini,  55. 
timor,  55. 
Titurius,  66. 
Titus,  16. 
toga,  17. 
toUo,  13. 
Torquatus,  20. 
torques,  20. 
tot,  66. 
totus,  25. 
tracto,  25. 
trado,  38.  traho,  62. 
trajicio,  38. 
trans,  20. 
transeo,  3. 
transfero,  31. 
transgredior,  62. 
transigo,  46. 
transmarinus,  24. 
transtulisset,  63. 
Trebia,  39. 
trecentesimus,  1. 
trecenti,  16. 
tredecim,  36. 
tres,  8. 
tribunus,  21. 
tribuo,  36. 
tributum,  66. 
tricesimus,  3. 
tricies,  66. 
triduum,  59. 
triginta,  5. 
triumpho,  7. 
triumphus,  54. 
Troja,  1. 
trux,  25. 
tulisse,  25. 

Tullius,  8. 
Tullus,  5. 
turn,  21. 
tunc,  2. 
turbo,  73. 
Tusci,  10. 
Tuscia,  39. 
tutor,  69. 
tutus,  64. 
tyrannicus,  72. 

ubi,  41. 
ubicunque,  59. 
uilus,  30. 
ultimus,  10. 
undique,  13. 
unguis,  21. 
universus,  61. 
unus,  1. 
urbs,  1. 
usque,  15. 
ut,  12. 
uterque,  45. 
uxor,  2. 

vacuus,  68. 
Valerius,  13. 
validus,  68. 
varius,  49. 
Varro,  40. 
vasto,  26. 
Veientes,  3. 
vel,  48. 
venenum,  28. 
venio,  11. 
verbero,  21. 
verum,  40. 
vestalis,  1. 
veto,  22. 
Veturia,  15. 
via,  23. 
vicesimus,  6= 



eicinus,  2. 
victor,  14. 
victoria,  21. 
victus,  31. 
vicus,  40. 
video,  25. 
viginti,  11. 
Viminalis,  8 
vincio,  28. 
vmco,  3. 

vindico,  14. 
vir,  27. 
Virginius  16. 
virgo,  1. 
virtus,  36. 
vitiosus,  51. 
vito,  48. 
vix,  45. 
voce,  2. 
volo,  12. 

Volsci,  10. 
Volso,  31. 
Volumnia,  15. 
voluntas,  72. 
vox,  25. 
vulnero,  36. 
vulnus,  25. 
vultus,  25. 

Xantippus,  32. 


able  (to  be),  13. 

absent  (to  be),  5, 22. 
abstain  from  (to),  37 
according  to,  2. 
Achaia,  46. 
acre,  17. 
act  (to),  2. 
add  (to),  5. 
Adherbal,  52. 
admire  (to),  27. 
adopt  (to),  74. 
advise  (to),  35. 
Africa,  31. 
African,  30. 
Africanus,  47. 
after,  1. 
afterwards,  4. 
against,  6,  20. 
age.  16. 
Alban,  5. 
Alexandria,  69. 
Algidus,  17. 
all,  2. 
alone,  16. 
also,  7. 
although,  2. 
among,  22. 
ancient,  18. 
Ancus,  6. 
angry  (to  be),  15. 
Anio,  20. 

another,  5. 
answer  (to),  58. 
Antiochus,  46. 
Antony,  65. 
anything,  13. 
Appian,  23. 
appoint  (to),  8. 
apprehend  (to),  65. 
approach  (to),  15. 
Apulia,  22. 
Ardea,  10. 
arm  (to),  21. 
army,  11,  18. 
arrival,  38. 
arrogantly,  72. 
as,  14. 

as  far  as,  15. 
Asia.  47. 
ask  (to),  34. 
assassin,  73. 
assistance,  15. 
Atilius,  31. 
attempt  (to),  73. 
Augustus,  73. 
author,  50. 
avenge  (to),  14. 
Aventine,  6. 
avoid  (to),  48. 

badly,  18. 
banish  (to),  12. 

battle,  14. 
be  (to),  8. 
beaked,  30. 
bear  (to),  24. 
bear  off  (to),  2. 
beat  (to),  3. 
because,  18,  55. 
befall  (to),  67. 
before,  72. 
begin  (to),  12. 
behold  (to),  69. 
benefit  (to),  4. 
besiege  (to),  17. 
best,  21. 
Bestia,  52. 
betake  oneself  (to), 

26,  31. 
betray  (to),  38. 
Bibulus,  66. 
bind  (to),  28. 
blockade  (to),  17. 
bloody,  53. 
Bocchus,  53. 
body,  70. 

booty,  18.    both,  40. 
Bosphorus,  64. 
bravery,  36. 
breakfast,  45. 
bribe  (to),  27,  52. 
bring  (to),  24. 



bring  back  (to),  36. 
brother,  1. 
Brutus,  11. 
build  (to),  1. 
burn  (to),  5. 
bury  (to),  25. 
but,  4. 
by,  1. 

C,  20. 

Caesar,  66, 
call  (to),  2. 
Camillus,  18. 
camp,  24. 
Cauipania,  22, 
Campus,  77. 
Cannae,  40. 
Capitol,  7. 
captive,  26. 
capture  (to),  15. 
Carbo,  61. 
carry  on  (to),  4. 
carry  over  (to),  81. 
Carthage,  31. 
Carthaginian,  30. 
Catiline,  65. 
Catulus,  36. 
Caudine,  23. 
cavalry,  14,  48. 
cease  (to),  34. 
celebrate  (to),  2. 
census,  8. 
centurion,  64. 
ceremony,  33. 
certain  one  (a),  21. 
chain,  32. 
Chalcedon,  63. 
challenge  (to),  20. 
change  (to),  61. 
chastity,  14. 
chief,  17. 
children,  11. 

Cicero,  65. 
Cimbri,  55. 
Cincinnatus,  17. 
Cineas,  27. 
Cinna,  58. 
circus,  7. 
citizen,  0. 
city,  1. 
Claudius,  23. 
Cleopatra,  70. 
close  (to),  11. 
collar,  20. 
colleague,  55. 
CoUatinus,  10. 
collect  (to),  13. 
combat,  20. 
come  (to),  11. 
come  on  (to),  68. 
come  to  pass  (to), 

line  531. 
come  up  (to),  15. 
command     (to     be 

in),  48. 
commence  (to),  21. 
commit  (to),  35. 
complete  (to),  3. 
condemn  (to),  18. 
condition,  27. 
confer  (to),  72, 
conquer  (to),  3,  5.- 
conqueror,  14. 
considered  (to  be), 

conspire  (to),  65. 
conspirator,  72. 
construct  (to),  23. 
consul,  12. 
consulship,  29. 
(vorioli,  15. 
Cornelius,  29. 
correct  (to),  51. 
Corviuus,  21. 

country,  15. 
course,  28. 
crime,  73. 
cross  over  (to),  3. 
cuirass,  70, 
cultivate  (to),  17. 
Curius,  29. 
Cursor,  22. 

daughter,  9. 
day,  3. 
dead,  25. 
death,  'page  64. 
Decemvirs,  17. 
declare  (to),  24. 
defeat  (to),  3. 
defend  (to),  19. 
defender,  14. 
defer  (to),  39. 
delay  (to),  39. 
demand  (to),  67. 
desire  (to),  77. 
despair  (to),  77. 
despise  (to),  27. 
destroy  (to),  22. 
dictator,  14. 
dictatorship,  14. 
difficult,  28. 
dignity,  13. 
dinner,  45. 
disapprove  (to),  52. 
disaster,  67. 
disgrace,  23. 
disgraceful,  52. 
dispo.^ition,  65. 
distressed  (to  be),  19 
divide  (to),  4,  18. 
divine,  43. 
do  (to),  2,  7. 
doctor,  28. 
Domitius,  62. 
drag  off  (to),  41. 



dread  (to),  25. 
drive  out  (to),  12. 
Duilius,  30. 

eighteen,  1. 
eighty,  9. 
either  ...  or,  56. 
Egypt,  69. 
elephant,  25. 
empire,  1. 
encamp  (to),  20. 
end,  25,  54. 
end  (to),  46. 
enemy,  17. 
engage  (to),  39. 
enlarge  (to),  5. 
ensuing,  line  525. 
enter  (to),  7,  58. 
enter  on  (to),  9. 
envy,  18. 
Ephesus,  59. 
Epirus,  24. 
establish  (to),  7. 
evil,  34. 
except,  15. 
exchange,  34. 
excite  (to),  11. 
expel  (to),  12. 
eye,  21. 

Fabian,  16. 
Fabius,  16. 
Fabricius,  27. 
face,  25. 
fair,  27. 
fall  (to),  16. 
famine,  19. 
fear,  26,  42. 
field,  9. 
fierce,  25. 
fifth,  9. 
fifty,  47. 

fight,  14. 

fight  (to),  6,  39. 

find  (to),  17. 

fire,  26. 

first,  7. 

first  time  (for  the), 

five,  11. 

five  hundred,  32. 
five  hundredth,  40. 
Flaminius,  39. 
flee  (to),  11. 
fleet,  36. 
fly  (to),  11. 
follow  (to),  17. 
for  ever,  20. 
for  fe;ir,  line  397. 
force  (to),  74. 
forces,  33. 
Forks,  23. 
former,  36. 
fortieth,  4, 
forty,  64. 
fortune,  63. 
found  (toi,  2. 
four,  9. 
fourth,  1. 
free  (to),  17. 
friend,  10. 
friendship,  44. 
from,  1. 
from  all  sides,  13. 

gain   possession   of 

(to),  70. 
Gallus,  77. 
game,  2. 
gate,  11. 
Gaul,  19. 
general,  15. 
gens,  13. 
Germans,  55. 

give  (to),  19. 
glory,  45. 
go  over  (to),  3. 
god,  3. 
gold,  19. 
golden,  20. 
grant  (to),  19. 
great,  14,  55. 
greater,  69. 
Gracchus,  38. 

Hamilcar,  31. 
hand,  17. 

hand  over  (to),  38. 
Hannibal,  37. 
hard,  32. 
hardl}',  45. 
Hasdrubal,  38. 
hasten  (to),  15. 
have  (to),  1. 
he,  1,  28. 
hear  (to),  44. 
heir,  51. 
helmet,  21. 
help,  15. 
help  (to),  61. 
Helvetii,  66. 
herself,  2. 
Hiempsal,  52. 
hill,  1. 
himself,  2. 
his,  2. 
hitherto,  8. 
hold  (to),  1. 
honesty,  28. 
honour,  22. 
honourable,  .35. 
honourably,  26, 
Hostilius,  5. 
house,  5. 
hundred,  2. 
hunger,  19. 



if,  12. 

ignoble,  50. 
in,  1. 

in  order  that,  13. 
in  turn,  14. 
industry,  62. 
infantry,  38. 
injure  (to),  10. 
injury,  3. 
insolent,  12. 
into,  1. 
Italy,  18. 

join  (to),  8. 
Jugurtha,  52. 

K,  16. 
keep  (to),  1. 
kill  (to),  7,  21. 
king,  4. 
kingdom,  3. 
know  (to),  27. 

L,  17. 

Lacedemonians,  32. 
Laevinus,  24. 
large,  55. 
last,  10. 

lay  waste  (to),  26. 
lead  (to),  8. 
lead  back  (to),  28. 
leader,  15. 
leadership,  line  1 52. 
leave  (to),  11,  44. 
legate,  15. 
legion,  21. 
Lentulus,  29. 
Lepidus,  74. 
less,  64. 
letter,  59. 
Liburnian,  30. 
lightning,  5. 

longer,  12. 
lord,  25. 
lose  (to),  31. 
loss,  41. 
Lucullus,  63. 

M,  55. 

Macedonia,  67. 
Macedonians,  46. 
made  (to  be),  23. 
Magnesia,  47. 
make  (to),  7. 
man,  16,  27. 
Manlius,  20. 
many,  13. 
Marcius,  6. 
Marius,  53. 
marry  (to),  8. 
Martins,  77. 
Masinissa,  44. 
master,  14. 
master  of  horse,  14. 
matron,  14. 
Maximus,  22. 
meet  (to),  39. 
memory,  7. 
messenger,  15. 
Metellus,  33. 
mile,  5. 

Mithridates,  57. 
money,  52. 
month.  4. 
more,  12. 
more ...  than,  42. 
mother,  15. 
mourn  for  (to),  14. 
mount,  5. 
multitude,  2. 
Munda,  71. 
murderer,  75. 

nation,  2. 
naval,  47. 
near,  19,  55. 
nearly,  2. 
neck,  20. 
neighbouring,  2. 
nephew,  6. 
never,  69. 
new,  14. 
Nicomedes,  58. 
night,  25. 
ninetieth,  1. 
no,  4. 
no  one,  4. 
noble,  8, 
not,  2. 

not ...  even,  66. 
notice  (to  give),  37. 
Numa,  4. 
Numidia,  44. 
Xumidians,  33. 
Numantini,  50. 

offer  (to),  21. 

old,  43. 

on,  1. 

on  account  of,  2. 

on  the  other  side, 

one,  1. 
only,  32. 
openly,  line  70. 
opportunity,  22. 
oppose  (to),  67. 
order,  54. 
order  (to),  24,  73. 
ornament,  49. 
other  (the),  12. 
others,  5. 
our,  7. 
out  of,  2. 
over  the  sea,  24. 



overcome  (to),  5. 
overthrow  (to),  51. 

P,  24. 

Palatine,  1. 
Papirius,  22. 
part,  28. 
partly,  51. 
pass,  23. 
pass  over  (to),  3. 
peace,  10. 
peck,  41. 
people,  2. 
perish  (to),  6. 
pestilence,  76. 
Philippi,  75. 
Pharnaces,  64. 
place  in  command 

(to),  62. 
place  on  (to),  20. 
place  over  (to),  77. 
pleasing,  30. 
plough  (to),  17. 
poison,  28. 
Pompey,  4. 
Pompilius,  62. 
Pontus,  58. 
poor,  27. 
position,  13. 
possess  (to),  17. 
posterity,  20. 
power,  12. 
powerful,  22. 
Praeneste,  26. 
pray  (to),  61. 
prayer,  15. 
prepare  (to),  30. 
press  hard  (to),  76. 
Prisons,  7. 
prisoner,  26. 
promise  (to),  28. 
protract  (to),  55. 

province,  51. 
Publius,  24. 
Punic,  30. 
punish  (to),  51. 
pursue  (to),  17. 
put  (to),  19. 
put  to  death  (to),  7. 
Pyrrhus,  24. 

quarter,  27. 
Queen,  76. 
Quintius,  15. 

raven,  21. 
receive  (to),  2,  6. 
recognize  (to),  49. 
recover  (to),  19. 
Regulus,  31. 
reign  (to),  3. 
reject  (to),  15. 
remain  (to),  7,  13, 

remove  (to),  13. 
Remus,  1. 
renew  (to),  60. 
reply  (to),  58. 
report  (to),  24. 
resolved,  12. 
rest,  33. 
restore  (to),  13. 
restrain  (to),  12. 
retire  (to).  22. 
retreat  (to),  35. 
return  (to),  22. 
Rhone,  55. 
rich  (very),  18. 
ring,  41. 
rise  up  (to),  72. 
river,  20. 
Roman,  1. 
Rome,  2. 
Romulus,  1. 

rule  (to),  3. 

ruler,  77. 

Sabines,  3. 
sacred,  4. 
8aguntum,  37. 
same,  7. 
.Samnites,  22. 
say  (to),  25. 
say  not  (to),  35. 
Scipio,  38. 
scout,  24. 
sea,  30. 
second,  37, 
sedition,  64. 
see  (to),  25. 
seek  (to),  15. 
seize  (to),  19. 
Sempronius,  38. 
Senate,  23. 
senator,  2. 
send  (to),  18. 
send  away  (to),  24 
Senonian,  19. 
service,  21. 
Servius,  8. 
Sequani,  66. 
set  out  (to),  16. 
settle  on  (to),  20. 
seven,  23. 
seventh,  3. 
severity,  53. 
sewer,  7. 
shed  (to),  67. 
ship,  30. 

shut  out  (to),  11. 
shut  up  (to),  23. 
Sicily,  29. 
silver,  36. 
sink  (to),  36. 
single,  20. 
situate,  10. 



six  times,  57. 
sixth,  5. 
sixty,  57. 
skilful,  48. 
skill,  2. 
slaughter,  55. 
slave  (to  be  a),  35. 
slay  (to),  7. 
small,  1. 
so,  19,  27. 
so  great,  16. 
social,  57. 
soldier,  21. 
some,  5. 
something,  21. 
son,  1. 

son-in-law,  9. 
soon,  11. 
soon     afterwards, 

Spain,  37. 
spoil,  18,  44. 
standard,  19. 
state,  2. 
stir  up  (to),  3. 
strike  (to),  5. 
strive  (to),  57. 
subdue  (to),  8. 
succeed  (to),  5. 
successfully,  22, 46. 
sue  (to),  15. 
suffer  (to),  7,  58. 
Sulla,  54. 
Sulpicius,  20. 
sun,  28. 
Superbus,  9. 
surname,  20. 
surround  (to),  3. 
survive  (to),  16. 

T,  16. 

take  (to),  15. 

take  away  (to),  11. 
Tarentiues,  24. 
Tareutum,  29. 
Tarquinius,  7. 
tear,  69. 
tempest,  3. 
temple,  4. 
ten,  4. 
terror,  26. 
Teutones,  55. 
than,  4. 
their,  2. 
then,  21. 
there,  4S. 
therefore,  13. 
thief,  4. 

think  (to),  4,  43. 
thirty,  5. 
this,  2. 
thousand,  9. 
three,  8. 

three  hundred,  16. 
three  hundredth,  1. 
throw  (to),  32. 
through,  3. 
throughout,  3. 
Tiberius,  38. 
to,  2. 

together  with,  1. 
Torquatus,  20. 
town,  3. 
treaty,  50. 
Trebia,  39. 
tribe,  13. 
triumph,  54. 
triumph  (to),  7. 
Tullius,  8. 
Tullus,  5. 
turn  from  (to),  28. 
turn  out  (to),  73. 
twelve,  36. 
twenty,  11. 

two,  5. 

under,  9. 
undertake  (to),  6. 
unknown,  8. 
unlimited,  4. 
unsuccessful,  25, 
unwilling   (to   be), 

Valerius,  13. 
valour,  36. 
Veientes,  3. 
vessel,  30. 
Vestal,  1. 
Veturia,  15. 
victory,  21. 
village,  40. 
virgin,  1. 
Volsci,  10. 
Volso,  31. 
Volumnia,  15. 

wage  (to),  4. 
wall,  7. 

wander  (to),  33. 
war,  3. 

warfare,  line  702. 
waste  (to),  63. 
way,  23. 

wear  out  (to),  51. 
weep  (to),  44. 
weeping,  15. 
weight.  30. 
what,  24. 
where,  41. 
wherefore,  27. 
wherever,  59. 
when,  2. 
while,  55. 
who,  1. 
whole,  25. 



whole     world, 

page  62. 
wicked,  12. 
wicked  act,  9. 
wife,  2. 
will,  51,  72. 

wish  (to),  12. 
with,  1. 

withdraw  (to),  14. 
woman,  8. 
wound  (to),  36. 
wrong  (to),  10. 

year,  1. 
yoke,  23. 
young,  10. 
youth,  16. 

Xautippus,  32. 



Pott  Svo,  Eighteenpence  each. 

The  following  contain  Introductions,  Notes,  and  Vocabularies,  and  in 
some  cases  Exercises : — 


15v  \V.  WEr.cii,  .M.A.,  uud  C.  G.  Dlkkikld,  .M.A. 
Aeschylus— PKOM  ETHE  US  VINCTUd.     By  Rev.  H.  M.  .Stephen.son,  MA. 
Arrian.— SELECTIONS.     With  Exercises.     By  Rev.  John  Bond,  M. A.,  and 

Rev.  A.  S.  Wai.pole.  M.A 
Aulus  Gellius,  Stories  from.     Adapted  for  Beginners.      With 

liy  Rev.  G.  H.  Nai.l.  M.A. 
Caesar.— THE  Helvetian  war.      Selections  from  Book  I.,  adapted  for 
JJctrinners.    With  Exercises.   By  W.  Welch,  M.A.,andC.G.  Duffield,  M.A. 
THE    INVASION    OF    BRITAIN.      Selections  from    Books   IV.   and   V., 

adapted  for  Beginners.     With  Exercises.     By  the  same. 
SCENES  FROM  BOOKS  V.  and  VI.     By  C.  Colbeck,  M.A. 
TALES  OF  THK  CIVIL  WAR.     By  C.  H.  Keexe,  M.A. 
THE  GALLIC  WAR.     Book  I.     By  Rev.  A.  S.  Walpolk,  M.A. 
Books  II.  and  III.     By  the  Rev.  W.  G.  Rutherford,  M.A.,  LL.D. 
Book  IV.    By  Clement  Bryans,  M.A. 

Book  V.     By  C.  Colbeck,  M.A.,  Assistant  Master  at  Harrow. 
Book  VI.     By  C.  Colbeck,  M.A. 

Book  VII.     By  Rev.  J.  Bond,  M.A.,  and  Rev.  A.  S.  Walpole,  M.A. 
THE  CIVIL  WAR.     Book  I.     Bv  M.  Montgomrky,  M.A. 
Cicero.— DE  SENECTQTE.     By  E.  S.  Shuckburgh,  M.A. 
UE  AMICITIA.     Bv  the  same. 
STORIES    OF     ROMAN    HISTORY.       Adapted    for    Beginners.       With 

Exercises.     Bv  Rev.  G.  E.  Jeaxs,  M.A.,  and  A.  V.  Jones,  M.A. 
FIRST  CATILINE  ORATION.     By  Rev.  G.  H.  Nall,  M.A. 
Curtius  (Quintus),— SELECTIONS.— Adapted  for  Beginners.     With  Notes, 

VocabiUai  V,  and  Exercises.     By  F.  Coverley  Smith. 
Euripides.— ALCESTIS.    By  Rev.  M.  A.  Bayfield,  M.A. 
MEDEA.     By  Rev.  M.  A.  Bayfield,  M.A. 

HECLI5A.     By  Rev.  J.  Bond,  M.A.,  and  Rev.  A.  S.  Walpole,  M.A. 
Eutropius.- Adajited  for  Beginners.    With  Exercises.    By  W.  Welch,  M.A., 
and  ('.  G.  DuFFlEf.D,  M.A. 
BooK.s  I.  and  II.     By  the  same. 
Exercises  in  Unseen  Translation  in  Latin.      By  w.  Welch,  m.a., 

:ind  Rev.  C.  G.  Dlfiield,  .M.A. 
Herodotus,  Tales  from.    Atticized.    By  G.  s.  Farxell,  M.A. 
Homer.— ILIAD.    Bk.  I.    ByRev.  J.BoND,M.A.,andRev.  A.  S.Wali>olk,  M.A. 
Book  VI.     Bv  Walter  Leaf,  Litt.D.,  and  Rev.  M.  A.  Bayfield. 
Book  XVIIL'    By  S.  R.  James,  M. A.,  Assistant  Master  at  Eton. 
Book  XXIV.     By  W.  Leaf,  Litt.D.,  and  Rev.  M.  A.  Bayfield,  M.A. 
ODYSSEY.    Book  I.   Bv  Rev.  J.  Bond,M.A.,  and  Rev.  A.  S.  Walpole,  M.A. 
Horace.— ODES.    Books  I.,  II.,  III.  and  IV.  separately.    By  T.  E.  Paqk,  M.A. 
Li vy.— Book  I.     By  H.  M.  Stephenson,  M.A. 
Book  V.     By  M.  Alford. 

Book  XXI.     Adapted  from  Mr.  Capes's  Edition.     Bv  J.  E.  Melhcish.  M.A. 
Book  XXII.    Adapted  from  :srr.  Capks's  Edition.    Bv  J.  E.  Melhuish,  M.A. 
SELECTIONS  FROM  BOOKS  V.  and  VI.     By  W.  Cecil  Laming,  M.A 
THE    HANNIBALIAN     WAR.       Books  XXL   and   XXIL     Adapted  by 

G.  C.  Macaulay,  M.A. 
Books  XXIII.  and  XXIV.     Adapted  by  E.  P.  CoLERiDnE,  B.A. 
THE  SIEGE  OP  SYRACUSE.     Adapted  for  Beginnei-s.      With  Exercises. 

Bv  G.  Richards,  M.A.,  and  Rev.  A.  S.  Waliole,  M.A. 
LEGENDS    OF    ANCIENT    ROME.       Adapted    for    Beginners.      With 
Exercises.     Bv  H.  Wilkinson.  M.A. 
Lucian.— EXTRACTS  FROM  LUCIAN.     With  Exercises.    By  Rev.  J.  Bond, 

M.A.,  and  Rev.  A.  S.  Walpole.  Af.A. 
HISTORY.     With  Exercises.     Bv  G.  S.  Farnell,  M.A. 
Vol.  I.     GREEK  LIVES.     By  H.  Wilkinson  M.A. 



Ovid.— SELECTIONS.     By  E.  S.  Shuckburgh,  M.A. 


By  H.  WiLKixsox,  M.A. 
STORIES  FllOM   THE   METAMORPHOSE.S.     With  Exerci3e.s.     By  Rev 

J.  Bond,  M.A.,  and  Rev.  A.  S.  Walpole,  M.A. 
TRISTIA.     Book  I.     By  E.  S.  Shuckburgh,  M.A. 

Book  III.     By  E.  S.  Shuckburgh,  M.A. 
G.  H.  Peacock,  M.A.,  and  E.  W.  W.  Bkll,  M.A. 
Phaedrus.— FABLES.     By  Rev.  G.  H.  Nall,  M.A. 

SELECT  FABLES.    Adapted  for  Beginners.    By  Rev.  A.  S.  Walpole,  M.A.' 
Pliny.— SELECTIONS  Illustrative  of  Roman  Life.    By  C.  H.  Keene,  M.A.1 

LETTERS.     I.-XII.     By  C.  J.  Phillips,  B.  A. 
SallUSt.— JUGURTHINE  WAR.     By  E.  P.  Coleridge,  B.A. 
Suetonius.— STORIES  OF  the  CAESARS.     By  H.  Wilkinson,  M.A. 

Thucydides.— THE  rise  of  the   Athenian   empire.     Book 

Chs.  89-117  and  228-238.     With  Exercises.     By  F.  H.  Colson.  M.A. 
Books  II.  and  III.      By  W.  T.  Sutthery,  M.A.,  and  A.  S.  Graves,  B.A, 
Book  VII.     Athenian  Disaster  in  Sicily.     By  E.  C.  Marchant,  M.A. 
Valerius  Maximus.    By  c.  H.  Ward,  m.a. 
Virgil.— SELECTIONS.     By  E.  S.  Shuckburgh.  M.A. 
BUCOLICS.     By  T.  E.  Page,  M.A. 

GEORGICS.  Book  L  By  T.  E.  Pagf.,  M.A.     Book  III.  By  T.  E.  Page,  M.A- 
Book  II.    By  Rev.  J.  H-  Shrine,  M.A.         Book  IV.    Bv  T.  E.  Page,  M.A. 
AENEID.     Book  L     By  l!ev.  A.  S.  Walpole,  M.A. 

Book  L     By  T.  E.  Page,  M.A.  Book  VII.   By  Rev.  A.  Calvert.M.A. 

Book  II.     ByT.  E.  Page,  M.A.  Book  VIII.  By  Rev.  A.  Calvert.M.A. 

Book  IIL     By  T.  E.  Page,  M.A.        Book  IX.    By  Rev.  H.  M.  Stephen 
Book    IV.       By     Rev.     H.     M.  son,  M.A. 

Stephen.son,  M.A.  Book  X.     Bv  S.  G.  Owen,  M.A. 

Book  V.     By  Rev.  A.  Calvert,        Book  XL     By  T.  E.  Page,  M.A. 

M.A.  Book  XII.     By  T.  E.  Page,  M.A 

Book  VL     By  T.  E.  Page,  M.A. 

Xenophon.— ANABASIS.       Selections,     adapted     for     Beginners.       Wltl 

Exercises.     By  W.  Welch,  M.A.,  and  C.  G.  Duffield,  M.A. 

Book  I.     With  Exercises.     By  E.  A.  Wells,  M.A. 

Book  I.     By  Rev.  A.  S.  Walpole,  :M.A. 

Book  II.    By  Rev.  A.  S.  Walpole,  ]\I.A.      ^ 

Book  III.     By  Rev.  G.  H.  Nall,  M.A. 

Book  IV,     By  Rev.  E.  D.  Stone.  M.A. 

Book  V.     By  Rev.  G.  H.  Nall,  M.A. 

Book  VI.     By  Rev.  G.  H.  Nall,  M.A. 

Book  VII.     By  Rev.  G.  H.  Nall,  M.A 

SELECTIONS  FROM  BK.  IV.    With  Exercises.    By  Rev.  E.  D.  Stone.  M.A. 

SELECTIONS  from  the  CYROPAEDIA.    Exercises.    Bv  A.  H.  Cooke,  M.  A. 

TALKS  FROM  THE  CYROPAEDIA.  With  Exercises.  ByC.  H.  Keene,  M.A. 


The  following  contain  Introductions  and  Notes,  but  no  Vocabulary 

Cicero.— SELECT  letters.     By  Rev.  G.  E.  Jeans,  M.A. 

Herodotus.— SELECTIONS  FROM  BOOKS  VII.  and  VIII.     The  Expedition 

of  Xerxes.     By  A.  H.  Cooke,  M.A. 
Horace. -SELECTIONS    FROM    THE    SATIRES    AND    EPISTLES.       By 
Rev.  W.  J.  V.  Baker,  M.A. 
SELECT    EPODES    AND    ARS    POETICA.      By  H.  A.  Dalton,  M.A. 
Plato.— EUTHYPHRO  AND  MENEXENUS.     By  C.  E.  Graves,  M.A. 
Terence.— SCENES    FROM    THE     ANDRIA.    By  F.    W.  Cornish,    M.A., 
Vice-Provost  of  Eton. 

The  Greek  Elegiac  Poets.— FROM  CALLINUS  TO  callimaCHUS. 

Selected  bv  Rev.  Herbert  Kynaston,  D.D. 
Tbucydides.-  Book   IV.  Chs.  1-41.      THE  CAPTURE  OF   SPHACTERIA. 

By  C.  E.  Graves,  M.A. 



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